TLP Repeat Illumination/Libration and Earthshine predictions for: Poland - Warsaw



Ill is percentage illumination of the Moon
*Indicates a repeat illumination and libration event to within +/- 1 deg for both
A non-* indicates just repeat illumination to within +/-0.5 deg


2020-Jul-01 UT 18:54-19:43 Ill=86% Gassendi observed by Sartory on 1966-5-30 *

     Gassendi 1966 May 30 UT 20:32-20:59 Observed by Sartory (England, 8.5" 
     reflector + filters) "Orange patch & obscuration -- detected by Eng. 
     moon blink system. Color seen visually."NASA catalog weight=4 (good). 
     NASA catalog ID #941.


2020-Jul-01 UT 19:04-19:56 Ill=86% SW_Limb observed by Logue_DA on 1955-1-5

     On 1955 Jan 05 at 01:00-01:30 UT D.A. Logue (Larchment, PA, 
     USA, 15cm reflector at x340, seeing Good) saw a strange blue 
     light above the surface of the Moon where the night and the 
     day meet. He observed this light for more than 30 min and it 
     did not appear to move. It appeared like a star in that the 
     rays of light came from it. The observer adds that he first 
     thought thst the objects was a star, but later decided that it 
     had to be on the Moon itself. A drawing shows the blue spot 
     near the rugged south west (IAU?) limb of the Moon. The editor 
     of the Strolling Astronomer (Vol 8, No. 11-12, Nov-Dec 1954, 
     p146) was unable to identify the craters drawn. The editor 
     speculates that the observer saw a high mountain peak with its 
     summit in sunlight and detached from the illuminated regions - 
     however this would not explain the blue colour. Note this is 
     an ALPO observation and does not apear in the Cameron 
     catalogs. ALPO/BAA weight=2.


2020-Jul-01 UT 19:13-19:56 Ill=86% Ross_D observed by Harris on 1964-6-21

     On 1964 Jun 21 at UT 03:43-05:44 Harris, Cross and Helland (Whittier, 
     CA, USA, 19" reflector) observed south of Ross D: "Moving dark area". 
     The Cameron 1978 catalog ID=819 and weight=4. The ALPO/BAA weight=4.


2020-Jul-01 UT 20:43-23:21 Ill=87% Plato observed by Marshall_KP on 1982-8-1 *

     On 1982 Aug 01 at 00:00-01:00 K. Marshall (Medellin, Columbia, 12" 
     reflector, seeing I-II) noted shading on the east floor of Plato that 
     was apparently lighter than the rest of the floor and this was seen at 
     both low and high magnifications. Foley notes that this was unusual. 
     There were three craterlets visible on the floor - the central one was 
     the brightest. Cameron 1978 catalog ID=178 and weight=3. ALPO/BAA 
     weight=1.


2020-Jul-03 UT 19:30-23:24 Ill=98% Aristarchus observed by Moore_P on 1995-11-5 *

     Colour seen between Aristarchus and Herodotus by P. Moore
     and G. North. ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-03 UT 22:21-23:28 Ill=98% Lichtenberg observed by Schneller on 1966-6-2 *

     Lichtenberg 1966 Jun 02 UTC 03:05-03:35 Observed by Schneller 
     (Cleveland, Ohio, 8" reflector, slit spectrascope) "Red glow on W. wall 
     (Schnller thinks this is "normal" reddening at SR; however, these vary 
     according to Ricker), (This rep't is the only positive one from alert 
     sent out to observe for J.Green's tidal predictions, See list of neg. 
     obs.)" NASA catalog weight=3 (average). NASA catalog ID #944


2020-Jul-03 UT 23:22-00:09 Ill=98% Aristarchus observed by Jaeger on 1966-6-2 *

     Aristarchus 1966 Jun 02 UTC 04:06-04:20 Observed by Jaeger (Hammond, 
     Indianna, 6" reflector) "Brownish-yellow edge on ? rim. 2 other obs. 
     this site saw nothing unusual." NASA catalog weight=2 (low). NASA 
     catalog ID #945.


2020-Jul-03 UT 23:34-00:24 Ill=98% Vieta observed by Chernov on 1923-9-23 *

     Vieta 1923 Sep 23 UTC 19:00? Observed by Cernov (Russia, 2 refractors? 
     x94?) "Both dark spots merged together even with 94x magnification. 
     (due to libration &/or seeing?)" NASA catalog weight=1 (low). NASA 
     catalog ID #389.


2020-Jul-04 UT 20:15-22:55 Ill=100% Aristarchus observed by Gordon on 1966-6-3 *

     Aristarchus 1966 Jun 03 UT 01:00-01:45 Observed by Gordon (2), Delano 
     (Ackerman, PR?, 5" reflector / Massachussets, 3" (x92) & 10" reflector 
     T=4) "Deep blue color on N. wall. S.part of crater was brownish, (not 
     on alert). Delano saw E.wall bright spot unusually bright, confirm, ?" 
     NASA catalog weight=5. NASA catalog ID #947. ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-06 UT 21:10-22:48 Ill=97% Aristarchus observed by Foley_PW on 1975-3-28 *

     On 1975 Mar 28 at UT22:30-23:42 P.W. Foley (Kent, UK) observed 
     orange/red in Aristarchus. The ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-06 UT 21:10-22:18 Ill=97% Plato observed by Foley_PW on 1975-3-28 *

     On 1975 Mar 27 at UT22:30-01:45 P.W. Foley (Wilmington, Dartford, Kent, 
     UK, 30cm Newtownian) observed blueness along the inner southern wall of 
     Plato. This is a BAA report. The ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-09 UT 00:35-01:14 Ill=85% Aristarchus observed by Louderback_D on 1980-8-29

     On 1980 Aug 29 at UT07:32 D. Loudernack (South Bend, WA, USA, 8" 
     reflector, x140) found the south wall to have a broad dark band (only 
     visible in red light) at its base that covered nearly all of the 
     southern half of the crater. The brightness reading was 8.4 (in blue 
     light) and 4 (in red light). Cameron 2006 catalog ID=107 and weight=3. 
     ALPO/BAA weight=3. 


2020-Jul-09 UT 00:35-00:36 Ill=85% Aristarchus observed by Weier_D on 1992-5-20

     On 1992 May 20 at UT 11:15 D. Weier (Sun Prairie, WI, USA, naked eye 
     and 7x50 binouculars, sky conditions excellent) noted that Aristarchus 
     and, an area, were very bright to the eye. In binouculars the feature 
     was quire sharp and distinct, "> anything else on the Moon". The 
     Cameron 2006 catalog ID=447 and the weight=2. The ALPO/bAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-09 UT 22:45-01:41 Ill=77% Proclus observed by Louderback_D on 1980-8-30 *

     On 1980 Aug 30? at UT 08:00? D. Louderback (South bend, WA, USA, 8" 
     refletor x140) found the north wall to be very bright in red light 
     (this is not normal as it is usually bright in blue - according to 
     Cameron). The brightness was 9.7 (red) and 9 (blue no filter)compared 
     to Eimmart's 8.7. Louderback thought that they observed an oranfe-
     yellow tinge. Cameron 2006 catalog ID=108 and weight=3.


2020-Jul-12 UT 00:26-01:23 Ill=59% Aristarchus observed by Hall on 1965-11-15

     Aristarchus 1965 Nov 15 UTC 05:55-10:00 Observed by Hall, Johnson, 
     Nordling (Pt. Tobacco, MD, USA, 16" reflector x400), Genatt (Greenbelt, 
     MD, USA, 6" refractor, x50 & 20" reflector x400), Wagmann (Pittsburgh, 
     PA, 30" refractor). "Color on c.p. detected with Trident MB, not seen 
     vis. at Port Tobacco. Network alerted & 6 responded. 4 did not see 
     anything unusual; 2 others did & saw red on c.p. in 6-in refr.. but not 
     in 20-in refl. at 400x; other saw indistinctness. Port Tobacco obs. 
     took 5 rolls of film in blue & red & neutral. Phenom. not detectable on 
     them, but focus was poor. Blue image had most detail, whereas would 
     expect red or neutral to. Phenom. still present at dawn in Moon Blink 
     device." NASA catalog weight=5. NASA catalog ID #914.
     ALPO/BAA weight=4.


2020-Jul-12 UT 00:53-02:19 Ill=59% Plato observed by Mobberley_M on 1982-8-11

     On 1982 Aug 11 at UT03:30-04:15 Mobberley (Suffolk, UK) obtained a 
     photograph and made a sketch that revealed a needle-like shadow from 
     the west wall to near by the central craterlet - the latter was quite 
     clearly visible. What were not visible were the other four craterlets. 
     The Cameron 2006 catalog ID=183 and weight=4. The ALPO/BAA weight=2.


2020-Jul-12 UT 01:03-02:36 Ill=59% Alphonsus observed by Kozyrev on 1958-11-3

     Alphonsus 1958 Nov 03 UT 02:30-03:30 Observed by Kozyrev, 
     Ezerski (Pulkova Observatory, Crimea, Ukraine, 50" reflector, 
     23A/mm spectrograph) UT03:00-03:30 "C.p. redder than rest; 
     emiss. spect. in 4756A, 4100, 3950A (C3), 5165, 5130A (Swann 
     bands) 3 spect. over 3.5 h. Image of c.p. weakened in viol. 
     light on spect. Noted visual decrease in brightness & reddish 
     glow. Decrease in bright, & unnusual white color(at 0300h-
     0330h). Sudden decrease in vis. bright. Spect. started -- 
     gave norm. Spect. (0330-0340h), conditions almost identical to 
     Alter's on Oct. 26, 1956. Nothing seen on Nov. 2-3" NASA catalog 
     weight=5. NASA catalog ID #703. ALPO/BAA weight=5.


2020-Jul-12 UT 02:34-02:36 Ill=58% Aristarchus observed by Sage_VA on 1978-10-23 *

     Aristarchus 1978 Oct 23 UT 06:30-06:34 V.A. Sage (Bristol, UK, 
     10.25" reflector, x250, Wratten 44a and 25, seeing II) noted 
     that Aristarchus was surrounded by a dark area in the blue 
     filter. They did not regard this as a TLP at the time. However 
     because Aristarchus is surrounded by blue material in real life, 
     this should have been brighter? For this reason, despite the 
     observer regarding this as a negative TLP, an ALPO/BAA weight=1 
     has been applied.


2020-Jul-13 UT 00:36-01:46 Ill=49% Earthshine: sporadic meteors

2020-Jul-14 UT 00:51-01:47 Ill=40% Earthshine: sporadic meteors

2020-Jul-15 UT 01:09-01:49 Ill=30% Earthshine: sporadic meteors

2020-Jul-16 UT 01:34-01:54 Ill=22% Mare_Crisium observed by Arsyukhin on 1982-11-11

     On 1982 Nov 11 at UT 17:00-17:30 E.V. Arsyukhin (Moscow, Russia, 3" 
     reflector) saw three stationary dark spots suddenly appear in Mare 
     Crisium. There was one on the north and the other two in the south west 
     to south. They lasted approximately 30 minutes and then promptly 
     vanished. Cameron says that it cannot be this date because the Moon was 
     not visible at 17:00UT Suggests 05:00-05:30UT? The Cameron 2006 catalog 
     ID ID=189 and weight=3. The ALPO/BAA weight=2.  


2020-Jul-16 UT 01:34-01:50 Ill=22% Earthshine: sporadic meteors

2020-Jul-23 UT 18:34-19:50 Ill=12% Aristarchus observed by Cross on 1969-5-20 *

     On 1969 May 20 at UT 03:18-04:27 Cross (Las Cruces, NM, USA 6" 
     refractor), Olivarez (Spain?), Kohlenberger, Gibson, Miller, Duarte and 
     Harris (CA, USA) observed brightenings, pulsations, scintillations in 
     Aristarchus crater. Cameron says independent confirmation seen by 4 
     observers, 1-2 magnitude increases, ranged between 1-30sec. Most active 
     period was 03:18-03:20UT, 04:17-04:27UT (Las Cruces). Calkins (West 
     Covins, CA, USA) UT 03:40-04:25 saw one major brightening up 2 
     magnitudes above steady state lasting 0.2 to 1.5 sec and another slow 
     brightening lasting 5-10 seconds. Kelsey (CA, USA) saw at 03:43-03:48UT 
     some brightenings. These observations were made during the Apollo 10 
     watch. The Cameron 1978 catalog ID=1127 and 1128 and weight=5. The 
     ALPO/BAA weight=4.


2020-Jul-25 UT 18:31-18:39 Ill=30% Peirce observed by Pamplona on 1970-4-11

     On 1970 Apr 11 at UT 22:04-23:00 Claudio Pamplona and Jackson 
     Barbosa(Fortaleza, Brazil, 2" refractor, x160, seeing=fair) 
     observed an obscuration over Peirce, in particular they could 
     not see the crater wall and the crater itself was like a black 
     pit. (Apollo 13 watch). The Cameron 1978 catalog ID=1238 and 
     weight=1. The ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-25 UT 18:31-18:46 Ill=30% Mare_Crisium observed by Castro_T on 1991-6-17

     On 1991 Jun 17 at UT 20:30 T. Castro (Sao Paulo, Brazil, 24"
     reflector, x500) observed "Large white spot with tail eastward 
     shore of M. Crisium." The effect was seen on several nights but 
     had faded completely by 20th June. Tonight it varied in 
     brightness from "7.5-9.5 albedo" The Cameron 2006 catalog ID=430 
     and the weight=5. The ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:30-18:42 Ill=41% Censorinus observed by Nicolini on 1970-4-12

     On 1970 Apr 12 at UT 22:10-22:40 Censorinus was observed by Jean 
     Nicolini (Sao Paulo, Brazil, 12" reflector, x680). The crater 
     had a visible reddish hue--gap in bright area on western slope. 
     Colourless to pink to reddish. Environs also involved. 
     Photographs were taken. (Apollo 13 watch). Cameron 1978 catalog 
     TLP ID 1241 and weight=3. ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:30-18:55 Ill=41% Cyrillus observed by Loocks on 1970-4-12

     Cyrillus 1970 Apr 12 UT 23:46-23:52 Observed by Loocks (Valpareiso, 
     Chile, 12" reflector x88, LION network) "Small crater in Western 
     Cyrillus was much brighter than anything in the area". NASA catalog 
     weight=1 (very low). NASA catalog ID #1242.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:30-18:55 Ill=41% Mare_Nubium observed by Loocks on 1970-4-12

     Mare Numbium 1970 Apr 12 UT 23:46-23:52 Observed by Loocks (Valpareiso, 
     Chile, 12" reflector x88, LION network) "Small crater in Western 
     Cyrillus was much brighter than anything in the area. Earlier
     he got a blink at 35deg W 15 deg S 10th mag. Drawing (Apollo 13 
     watch)" NASA catalog weight=2 (poor). NASA catalog ID #1242.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:30-18:55 Ill=41% Proclus observed by Lobo_J on 2005-6-13

     Proclus 2005 Jun 13 UT 16:00-17:10 Observed by Julio Lobo 
     (Campinas, Brazil, 500mm telescope + finder scope) "Glow and 
     reddishness (pink) seen on circular rim. Also crater was 
     intensely bright all over. After 16:30 the brightness fades, 
     returning to normal. The ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:34-18:55 Ill=41% Aristarchus observed by Loocks on 1970-4-12

     On 1970 Apr 12 at UT 23:56 Loocks (Valparsiso, Chile, 12" reflector, 
     x88) observed a flash of magnitude 10 in Aristarchus - "not as 
     brilliant as usual (obscur. ?). Did not obs. permanent luminosity as in 
     other apportunities. (Apollo 13 watch)" The Cameron 1978 catalog ID=
     1243 and weight=3. The ALPO/BAA weight=2.


2020-Jul-26 UT 18:35-18:55 Ill=41% Mare_Crisium observed by Castro_T on 1991-6-18

     On 1991 Jun 18 at UT 21:30? T. Castro (Sao Paulo, Brazil, 24" 
     reflector, x500) observed "Large white spot with tail 
     eastward shore of M. Crisium." The effect was seen on several 
     nights but had faded completely by 20th June." The Cameron 
     2006 catalog ID=430 and the weight=5. The ALPO/BAA weight=1. 


2020-Jul-27 UT 18:28-19:34 Ill=53% Mons_Piton observed by Cutts on 1970-4-13 *

     Piton 1970 Apr 13 UT 22:06-01:30 Observed by Cutts (Waverton, 
     UK) "Peak was bright (Apollo 13 watch. Shining in dark?)" 
     NASA catalog weight=1. NASA catalog ID #1247. Similar 
     illumination shown on Hatfield Plate 2E(left). 
     ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-27 UT 18:28-18:55 Ill=53% Poisson observed by Arsyukhin on 1982-8-26

     On 1982 Aug 26 at UT 21:00 Arsyukhin (Moscow, Russia, 3" reflector) 
     found that Poisson appeared hazy. The Cameron 2006 catalog ID=181 and 
     weight=3. The ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-27 UT 18:39-18:55 Ill=53% Proclus observed by Classen on 1969-7-22

     Proclus 1969 Jul 22 UT 00:30? 01:15-01:25 observed by Classen 
     (Pulsnitz, E.Germany, 8" reflector), Leroy (Pittsburgh, 21.5" reflector 
     x310) and Cutter (Pennyslyvania) "Brightening of crater (Classen). 
     Alternatate brighening of S.part of crater at 15s intervals (too long
     interval for atm.) while N. half remained constant. Leroy confirmed 
     Cutter. (Both confirmed Classen Apollo 11 watch)." NASA catalog weight=
     5. NASA catalog weight=1151. ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Alpetragius observed by Stein on 1958-11-19

     Alpetragius 1958 Nov 19 UT 22:00-22:05 Observed by Stein 
     (Newark, New Jersey, USA, 4" refractor) "Shadow anomaly. 
     Portion of shadow vanished, replaced by lighter shade. At 
     22:05 gradually darkened & was normal in 20 sec." NASA catalog 
     weight=3. NASA catalog ID #704. ALPO/BAA weight=2.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Alphonsus observed by Hole_G on 1958-11-19

     Alphonsus 1958 Nov 19 UT 21:00-21:20 Observed by Hole (Brighton, 
     England, 24" reflector x500) and Wilkins, Wall and Brewin (Located in 
     Kent, and other locations in England, and 15", 12" and ?" reflector 
     telescopes) "Reddish patch on c.p. (S. of it) about 3 km in diameter. 
     (indep. confrim)." NASA catalog weight=5 (very high). NASA catalog ID 
     706.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:32 Ill=64% Maskelyne observed by Jean on 1969-5-25

     2 deg S of Maskelyne (29E, 1N) 1969 May 25 UT 01:15-01:56 Observed by 
     Jean, Barry, Bernie, (2) Madison (Montreal, Canada, USA, 4" refractor)
     "Very vis. pink patch red as seen thru a yellow filter. Photo of bright 
     red spot nr. Mask. (confirm. -- Apollo 10 watch)" NASA catalog weight=5 
     and 5 (very high). NASA catalog ID #1145.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Hercules observed by Nicolini on 1970-4-14

     Hercules 1970 Apr 14 UT 23:10-23:45 Observed by Jean Nicolini 
     (Sao Paulo, Brazil, 12" reflector, x680) "Vis. reddish-brown hue 
     to shaded area. In crater -- different from Atlas. Phenon. 
     stayed after moving telescope. Photos obtained. Not chrom. 
     Abber. (Apollo 13 watch)" NASA catalog weight=5. NASA catalog ID 
     #1251. ALPO/BAA weight=4.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Fracastorius observed by Robinson_JH on 1975-4-19

     Fracastorius 1975 Apr 19 UT 19:47, 20:40, 20:45 Observed by 
     Robinson (Teignmouth, UK, 26cm reflector) "Fracastorius had a 
     blink - it was bright in red and darker in blue at these three 
     times, and probably in between. This was possibly natural 
     surface colour being detected?". ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Mare_Crisium observed by Robinson_JH on 1975-4-19

     Mare Crisium 1975 Apr 19 UT 19:47-20:37 Observed by 
     Robinson (Teignmouth, UK, 26cm reflector) "Mare Crisium N. end 
     of floor - blink (red and blue filters) in patches, bright in 
     red. Blink stops at 20:37". ALPO/BAA weight=1.


2020-Jul-28 UT 18:27-18:35 Ill=64% Plato observed by Foley_PW on 1975-4-19

     On 1975 Apr 19 UT 21:09 P. Foley (Kent, UK), detected blue in 
     Plato on east. Fiton at UT20:45 found blue along the south wall 
     at the east (IAU?) end, which was very bright white. Blueness 
     extended towards the large landslip at the east of the formation. 
     Immediately north of the landslip, where the bright wall curves 
     first westwards, then again northwards, red could be faintly 
     detected, folloowed by a very faint blue. All other parts of the 
     formation were normal. Examination with a Moon blink device 
     revealed no colour blink. J-H Robinson also found blue, with red 
     on the west wall (exterior?). By 21:30UT Fitton found Plato to be 
     normal and so was Proclus, though he did find Epigenes (bright 
     cresecent of east wall only) slightly blue to the N.W and red 
     to the S.E. Mare Crisium was normal. Prominent spurious colour 
     seen on Venus, but it was low in the sky, with blue to the north 
     and red to the south. However J.H. Reading, managed to see the 
     north east floor blurred and slightly blue from 22:45-23:00UT. 
     These reports are BAA observation. The ALPO/BAA weight=2.


2020-Jul-29 UT 18:25-20:47 Ill=75% Plato observed by Robinson_JH on 1966-6-27 *

     Plato 1966 Jun 27 UT 21:40-21:55  Observed by Robinson (Teignmouth, 
     England, 10.5" reflector) and Sartory (England, 8.5" reflector + Moon 
     blink) "Color (red?) on SE wall detected by Eng. moon blink sys. 
     (confirm)." NASA catalog weight=5 (very high). NASA catalog ID 949.


2020-Jul-31 UT 18:43-21:53 Ill=91% Plato observed by Foley_PW on 1983-7-21 *

     On 1983 Jul 21 at UT 21:02-23:18 P.W. Foley (Kent, UK, 12" reflector, 
     seeing=III) found the region around the cleft on the souther rim to be 
     out of focus - however atmospheric conditions were turbulent until 
     23:18UT. An unsual dark triangular region (long base against rim) was 
     seen to extend from the inner rim at 12 o'clock onto the floor for 13-
     16km. The crater had lots of detail elsewhere. M. Cook (Frimley, UK) 
     found the south east to soth west to be obscured again, but not as 
     badly as she had seen on the 20th July. J. Cook (Frimley, UK) found the 
     dark region had 2 white bands on the side and the south west wall was 
     blurred like it was on the 20th July - this time tough colour was not 
     present. There were also two light patches on the floor. Mosely 
     (Coventry, UK) observed the south wall at x120 and found the wall out 
     of focus at the 11 o'clock location. Through a yellow filter he saw a 
     "white mistiness: on the top of the southern rim and only the south 
     east cleft could be seen (no colour). By 22:40-23:00 the effect had 
     cleared up. No dark triangular patch was seen. When Marshall (Surrey, 
     UK) observed (22:30-03:00) nothing unsual was seen, though a sketch 
     provided shows a light patch on the floor located at 11 o'clock. All 
     observations, made by all observers had some atmospheric turbulence, 
     however trsnparency was good. The Cameron 2006 catalog ID=225 and the 
     weight=5. The ALPO/BAA weight=3.


2020-Jul-31 UT 22:23-23:05 Ill=92% Herodotus observed by Bartlett on 1966-6-30 *

     Herodotus 1966 Jun 30 UTC 03:10-03:35 Observed by Bartlett (Baltimore, 
     MD, USA) described in the NASA catalog as: "Bright pseudo-peak again 
     vis. within floor shadow. Peak est. 5 bright. Had seen it at successive 
     lunations in '66" 4" x280 refractor used. NASA catalog weight=4 (high). 
     NASA catalog TLP ID No. #950. ALPO/BAA weight=3.