References  :  The Inflammatory Response


1. An overview of the inflammatory response-

a clinical description of the phenomenon.


2. General Reviews


May and Ghosh (1998) Signal transduction through NF-kB. Immunology Today 19, 80-88.


A good general reference- easy to understand (you’ve done my lectures) and full of useful further



Ghosh et al., (1998) NF-kB and Rel proteins : Evolutionary conserved mediators of immune responses.

Ann. Rev.Immunology 16: 225-260.


Intense review of the area- for the enthusiast only


O’Neil et al., (1998) Signal transduction pathways activated by the IL-1 receptor family: ancient signalling

 machinery in mammals, insects and plants. J. Leukocyte Biology. 63, 650-657.


Easily readable revies –covering IL-1 signaling and highlighting parallel pathways in plants.


Khush et al., (2000) Genes that fight infection : What the Drosophila  genome says about animal immunity.

Trends in Genetics, 16, 442-228.


Good review to read that turns the approach used in my lectures on it head as the authors use data from

Drosophila to understand the inflammatory response in mammals.


3. Interleukin-1 review

is an easy to understand review of interleukin –1 and its receptors


4. TNF-a review


The TNF Receptor Superfamily of cellular and viral proteins : Activiation, costimulation and death.

Cell 76, 959-962.

A wider examination of TNF-like receptors – one step on from my lectures.

a very detailed description of the entire TNF-a / receptor superfamily.


5. On analgestics.


Weissmann G. (1991). Aspirin. Scientific American. P58-64

Good on the history of analgesic development  


6. Trafs , MyD88, IRAKs,  NIK and IkB kinase.


Cao et al., (1996) TRAF6 is a signal inducer for Interleukin-1. Nature 383, 443-446.


Cao et al., (1996) IRAK : A kinase associated with the Interleukin-1 receptor. Science,

271, 1128-1131.


Muzio  et al., (1997) IRAK (Pelle) Family member IRAK2 and MyD88 as proximal mediators of IL-1 signalling.

 Science 278, 1612-1615.


Malinin et al., (1997) MAP3K-related kinase involved in NF-kB induction by TNF, CD95 and IL-1.

 Nature 385, 540-544.



Regnier et al., (1997) Identification  and characterisation of an IkB  kinase. (1997) Cell, 90, 373-383.


These are all original papers BUT – even if you don’t understand more than 50% - you should be still able to glean

  a wealth of data that  I haven’t time to cover in the lectures.


6. Toll family


Medzhitov and Janeway (2000) The Toll receptor family and microbial recognition. Trends in Microbiology. 8,  452-456.


Easy to read introduction of Toll signalling in insects and discusses Toll-like receptor in mammals.



7. Apoptosis- general reviews


Very good reminders of apoptosis – recommended.


Hengarther (2000) The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature 407, 771-776


A reminder of apoptosis from last year – and takes you further. Worth dipping into. .


Green (2000) Apoptitic Pathways : Paper Wraps Stone blunts scissors. Cell 102, 1-4.

 State of play of apoptosis research – for the enthusiast!


8. Apoptosis- CD95


CD95’s deadly mission in the immune system 407, 789-794.


9. Apoptosis – NF-kB


Ok  summary of the anti-apoptotic effects of NF-kB


Ryan et al., (2000) Role of NF-kB in p53-mediated programmed cell death. Nature , 404, 892-897

Again, an original paper but will provide some useful information if studied carefully.







BS32020 : Reading List.


1.      General reviews on virulence

A good overview of some pathogens that I did have time to talk about.

Very nice and comprehensive review of bacterial virulence factors


  1. Erwinia carotovora


2.1    Infection process


Agrios G.N. (1997) Plant Pathology. (4th edn.) Academic Press


Basset et al.,(2000). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2000) 97: 3376-3381.


2.2    Symptomology


2.3    Extracellular pectate degrading enzymes


      Barras et al., (1994) Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 32: 201-234

A good review but challenging to non-geneticists/biochemist.


2.4    Quorum sensing


Fuqua et al., (1994) Journal of Bacteriol. 176, 269-275.


  1.  Pseudomonas syringae


3.1    Toxins


Agrios G.N. (1997) Plant Pathology. (4th edn.) Academic Press


3.2    Hrp functions


Galan and Collmer (1999) Science  284: 1322-1328.

A general review of Type III secretion mechanisms. Goes into some detail but even

the non-specialist will find something useful here.


Lindgren et al., (1997) Ann. Rev. Phytopathol.  35: 129-152.

Annual Reviews look forbidding but if you perceiver with this one you’ll find be able to glean

lots of information.


Collmer et al., (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:8770-8777.

A more in depth review of the Pseudomonas syringae hrp  system.

If you’re interested in this subject- this sites explores the similarities of the hrp system to

 that of flagella.


  1. TMV


4.1    General Viral  Classification.


Agrios G.N. (1997) Plant Pathology. (4th edn.) Academic Press


4.2    The natural history of TMV

A dream site for you! Everything you need to know about TMV and very well explained.


  1. Avirulence / Resistance gene interactions


Ji et al., (1998) Curr. Opinion Biotech. 9:202-207.

An excellent review on plant / pathogen interations.  Ideal for the non-specialist too!

A must.


White et al., (2000) Curr. Opinion Plant Biology. 3, 291-298.

Investigates avirulence gene “virulence function”. Takes my lectures to the next

 stage of knowledge – BUT – any of you should find this one useful.


Martin (1999) Curr. Opinion Plant Biology 2:273-279.

A bit more detailed than Ji et al.  – but gets to the nitty- gritty.