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Histaiaeus sent message on head of slave
Pliny described ‘invisible ink’ in 100AD
Scytale dates from 500BC used in Sparta – first known military cryptographic device.
Abu Yousuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was born at Kufa (nr Najaf, Iraq) around 800 C.E
philosopher, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, physician, geographer
the philosopher of the Arabs “
241 books: Astronomy 16, Arithmetic 11, Geometry 32, Medicine 22,
Physics 12, Philosophy 22, Logic 9, Psychology 5, and Music 7
including “A manuscript of deciphering of Cryptographic Messages
Extensive publishing in Baghdad 100’s of bookshops
Study of works of Mohammed, linguistic & frequency analysis
C15th in Europe – Renaissance
Imported knowledge from arabs – including cryptanalysis
Francis Walsingham (1530-1590) – secretary to Elizabeth
father of modern intelligence
Babington plot
Mary Queen of Scots tried for treason & executed 1587