THE NORWICH BOOK TRADES BEFORE 1800

DAVID STOKER

Trans. Cambridge Bibliographical Society VIII, 1981, 79-125.

(This is a scanned version of the printed text there may be errors).

The following list aims to provide an outline of the careers of the most important members of the early Norwich book trades and also such details as are known of all other less significant tradesmen in this field. The criteria for inclusion are that the individuals should have followed one of the trades of stationer, bookseller, printer, bookbinder, papermaker, or newspaper proprietor as an apprentice, journeyman or master within the city before 1800. The entries seek to give the nature of each business, the address, the earliest and latest known dates of working, the relationship to other businesses in the city and any significant biographical details. Complete lists of the publications of individuals are not provided although titles are mentioned when they mark a significant stage in a career or indicate that the business was still operating at a given date.

Throughout the period under consideration Norwich was one of the three or four largest provincial cities in England, and for the greater part of the seventeenth century and the early years of the eighteenth it was probably second in size only to London. The eminence of the city is reflected in many aspects of its social and commercial life, and not least in terms of the active book trades that flourished there.

The bulk of the material was collected by the author for a study of the Norwich book trades between 1560 and 17601 using all the major series of City Records, appropriate parochial records, contemporary local newspapers, poll books, and directories, and other materials in the collections of Norfolk County Library and the Norfolk Record Office. This material has been supplemented by an examination of the most likely sources for the periods before and after these two centuries. However, the years from 1760 to 1800 have not been covered as thoroughly as those preceding them, partly because of the enormous range of potential sources of information which have survived and partly because the most important businesses of this time have already been examined in detail elsewhere.' Two attempts have already been made to list the printers, booksellers, and bookbinders of Norfolk during this period. The first was a checklist of names and earliest and latest known dates for the period 1567-1800 which was compiled by Frank Sayer and later used by Rex Stedman as an appendix to his thesis Vox populi; the Norfolk newspaper press 1760-1900. The second list was compiled independently by Trevor Fawcett and was published as an appendix to his article Eighteenth century Norfolk booksellers; a survey and register. Mr Fawcett covered a narrower field, as is suggested by his title, but gave much more detail. Although the greater part of the information given below is entirely new, the writer nevertheless owes a large debt to these works which is not otherwise acknowledged in the text. No work of this nature can ever be considered to be complete. A large number of changes have been made since the list was first compiled in 1974, and there is bound to be a lot of additional information which may still be discovered, particularly as a result of the work that is progressing on the Eighteenth century short-title catalogue.

For reasons of space, citations have been kept to a minimum. The major series of Norwich City Records such as the Mayor's Court Books, Court Rolls, Assembly Books, Chamberlain's Accounts, Quarter Sessions Minutes, etc. are readily accessible in the Norfolk Record Office,' as are the various registers of Freemen.' Other sources are cited by means of the abbreviations listed at the end of the article.

NOTES

1. David Stoker, A history of the Norwich book trades from 1560 to 1760, Library Association FLA thesis 1975.

2. Rex Stedman, Vox populi, the Norfolk newspaper press 1760-]9X, Library Association FLA thesis 1971.

3 Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society Vol. VI Pt l @ 1972.

4 They are also catalogued in William Hudson and John Tingey, Revised catalogue of the records of the city of Norwich, Norwich, 1898.

5 Threeoftheregistershavebeentranscribedandpublished:johnLeStrange,Calendarof freemen of Norwich from 1317 to 1603, 1888; Percy Millican, The register of freemen of Norwich 1548-1713, Norwich, 1934, and The freemen of Norwich 1714-1752 Norfolk Record Society vol. 23, 1956.

CHECKLIST

ALLEN, Robert

A bookseller and possibly a printer in St Stephen's parish from at least 1702 until around 1718. Chambers states that Allen printed an edition of Alexander Neville's Norfolk furies in 1702, although it is more likely that the work was printed "for" him. In 1707 A true description of Norwich was printed by Elizabeth Burges for Robert Allen and R. Kilboum. He is last noticed in 1718 when Benjamin Lyon printed The history of Norwich for Allen and Nicholas Lemon. (A man with this name is listed in the Norwich Archdeacon's Transcripts as having been buried in St Andrew's churchyard on 20 Jun. 1719, no trade given.)

ANNIS, John

A bookseller and bookbinder at 5 London Lane from 1790 until circa 1812. Annis supplied books to the Norwich Public Library from 1790 (Fawcett) and is also listed in Universal British Directory circa 1792. He became a freeman of Norwich 24 Feb. 1797, and is listed in Peck in 1801. He subscribed to the second edition of Blomefield circa 1810 and voted in an 1812 poll.

ATFEND, Abraham

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1636 until 1653. The son of Nicholas Atfend, a Norwich grocer, he was apprenticed to John Grismond, a stationer, printer and type founder of London, for eight years from 5 Oct. 1629 (McKenzie - under Atfield). He did not complete his apprenticeship and just over six years later he had returned to Norwich and become a freeman by patrimony as a stationer (17 Feb. 1635/6). In 1640 an edition of Giles Fletcher's Christ's victorie and triumph was printed for him by Roger Daniel in Cambridge. In the same year he was arrested and appeared before the Court of High Commission (Vol. 434 f. 160b P.R.O.). After pleading guilty to receiving and vending "Holland Bibles and books in English printed beyond the seas" and promising his good behaviour, he was discharged on payment of the costs. Atfend appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions to give evidence on 3 Apr. 1638, and on 21 Sep. 1646 for unspecified reasons. In 1643 he subscribed two pounds towards the relief of Newcastle (Norfolk Archaeology Vol. 18 p. 149). He also paid rates to the overseers of the poor for his parish until 1645, being assessed on goods to the value of sixteen pounds. Atfend's will was proved in the Norwich Archdeacon's Court on 1 Mar. 165213, his sole legatee being Michael Crotch "who has kept me in my sickness".

BACON, Richard

A bookseller, printer, and auctioneer. He was born 1745 (Stedrnan p. 319), became a freeman of Norwich by purchase as a grocer on 24 Feb. 1769, and in 1782 he became a freeman of Great Yarmouth as an auctioneer, the apprentice of J. Hurry. In 1783 he moved back to Norwich and advertised as an auctioneer from 12 Lower Goat Lane (N.M. 21 Jun. 1783) where he continued in business until at least 1802 (poll book). From 1785 until 1788 Bacon was a partner in the ownership of the Norwich Mercury together with William Chase III and William Yarington, and from 1788 with Yarington alone (Stedman pp. 83-92). He held a book auction at "the Repository" Back of the Inns (N.M. 4 Nov. 1786) and was also at 12 Cockey Lane from around 1792 until 1801 (Universal British Directory and Peck) whilst continuing with his premises in Lower Goat Lane. According to Stedman (p. 92) he retired 29 Sep. 1804, but his name continued to appear on various imprints until circa 1806. He died in the parish of St Augustine 17 Mar. 1812.

BACON, Richard Mackenzie

Born 1776, the son of Richard Bacon, he was a printer, bookseller, newspaper proprietor and paper manufacturer, as well as being a leading figure in the cultural life of Norwich in the nineteenth century. He became a freeman of the city by patrimony 20 Oct. 1798, and in August 1799 he had four printing presses (from a return made as a result of "An act to suppress seditious practises" (39. Geo. III c. 79 in N.R.O.). He was later a partner in the Taverham paper mill and the editor of the Norwich Mercury. He died 27 Nov. 1844 at Costessey. His career in the nineteenth century is described in the D.N.B. and by Stedman, p. 93.

BAKER, William

A printer in St Peter Permountergate parish from 1784 until 1787. An apprentice of John Crouse, he became a freeman of Norwich 24 Feb. 1784. His name appears in poll books in 1786 and 1787 in the above parish. It is not clear whether he was in business on his own account or a journeyman working for Richard Beatniffe who owned a printing office there.

BARKER, William

A bookseller, bookbinder, printer, and the proprietor of a circulating library in East Dereham from 1778 until at least 1802. An apprentice of Martin Booth in Norwich, he opened his own shop in January 1778 and became the agent in the town for the Norwich Mercury (see also N.M. 6 Jun. 1778). His shop was advertised as being in the Market Place. Barker's name appears on the Norwich polls of 1786 and 1802 as a bookbinder in Dereham.

BARNES, Adam

A bookbinder circa 1583. He is known only from two brief references, one in the Mayor's Court Book 11 25 May 1583, the other in the Norwich Quarter Sessions Minutes 15 May 1585. On the second occasion he produced recognizances of £20 to reappear before the court on 12 Jul. 1585, for unspecified reasons. He was possibly the same man who was apprenticed to William Seres in London as a stationer in 1565? (Arber).

BARTLETT, Robert

A stationer at the sign of the "Upper halfe moone)' until 1654, he was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard on 1 Nov. of that year (parish register). He was probably a journeyman working for Edward Martin, who died at this address and was buried 3 Mar. 1653/4.

BEATNIFFE, Richard

A bookseller, bookbinder and printer from 1763 until 1818. He was an apprentice of Thomas Hollingworth of Kings Lynn, and turned down the opportunity of marrying his master's daughter (D.N.B.). He moved to Norwich in 1763 and with Hollingworth's assistance he took over the business of Jonathan Gleed in Cockey Lane (N.M. 21 May 1763). He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase on 21 Sep. 1764 as a bookbinder. In 1766 "having engaged proper assistance from London and purchased a large quantity of Mr Caslon's excellent type", he opened a printing office in the parish of St Peter Permountergate (N.M. 21 Jun. 1766), possibly employing Michael Curry, and later William Baker. Beatniffe was the master of Daniel Sudbury, and was also in partnership with John Payne II from 1795 until 1798 in the production of several works (including Hannah Brown's Plays and poems, 1798). His bookshop at 6 Cockey Lane (Chase) was famous for its extensive stock, and Beatniffe achieved fame by the authorship and publication of various editions of Norfolk tour between 1773 and his death in 1818, aged 78. (See also D.N.B. and Chambers p. 1183.)

BERRY, Christopher

The founder of a family of booksellers and bookbinders in the parish of St John Maddermarket. An apprentice of Thomas Goddard, he became a freeman of Norwich as a stationer 25 Feb. 1747/8, having previously opened a shop at 13 Dove Lane (N. M. 28 Nov. 1747). In 1757 he took over the business of James Carlos at the sign of "the Bible and Dove" in the same street (N.M. 27 Aug. 1757). In 1761 he was the Master of the Union Coffee House Lodge of Freemasons (Le Strange and Amherst & Le Strange). After building up a successful business he died 2 Jul. 1770 and was succeeded by his sons, John and Christopher 11 (N. C. 7 Jul. 1770 and 21 Jul. 1770). See also the entries for the Berry family below.

BERRY, Christopher II

With John Berry (probably his brother) he ran the business of his father, Christopher, from 1770 until at least 1783, and perhaps 1787 or 1788. His name appears on Land and Window Tax papers for the parish until 1783 when his place is taken by his son John 11 (N.R.O. 23A). John II was only in partnership with John for a short period (circa 1784/5) before his name disappears, and it seems that Christopher II may have returned from a retirement to run the business in partnership with john circa 1785-7. If this was the case, he presumably died circa 1787/8; thereafter john’s name only is found on the Land and Window Tax papers. Christopher II was the master of Robert Cordran and William Tooke Robberds,

BERRY, Christopher III

John Berry ran the family business alone for a short period until' his death in July 1789. Thereafter he was succeeded by Christopher Berry III who was apparently his son. From 1795 until at least 1807 Christopher III was in partnership with Christopher IV and Robert Rochester (N. M. @ 3 Jun. 1795, A catalogue of books ... by Berry and Rochester, Norwich, 1805, and poll books for 1799, 1805, and 1806). At some time before 1810 either Christopher 111 or IV was replaced in the partnership by John III.

BERRY, Christopher IV

Possibly the son of Christopher 111 or perhaps more likely the son of John

II, he was in partnership with Christopher 111 and Robert Rochester from 1795 until circa 1810 (subscription list to Blomefield 2nd ed.). Thereafter he was probably in partnership with a third ' John Berry (Berry) and these names appear on imprints until circa 1823.

BERRY, John

He was in partnership with Christopher 11 from .1 770 until 1783, and with John II, who was probably his nephew, from circa 1784/5. He was working with Christopher II again circa 1785-7, and alone from circa 1787/8 until his death in 1789 aged 42 (N. M. 1 8 Jul. 1789). In 1777 he was temporarily in partnership with Martin Booth to sell the library of the antiquary Thomas Martin (D.N.B.). He was succeeded by Christopher Berry III who was apparently his son.

BERRY, John 11

The son of Christopher II, he became a freeman by patrimony 2 Mar. 1782, and was in partnership with his uncle John Berry circa 1783-5. Possibly the father of Christopher IV?

BLOMEFIELD, Francis

The rector of Fersfield and historian of Norfolk, he also owned a press 'n Norwich c. 1743-1752. After receiving quotations for the printing of his history of Norfolk from William Chase and from James Bettenham in London, he decided to set up his own press at his Fersfield rectory in 1736. At some time between 1743 and 1745, whilst in the process of printing his second volume, he transferred his materials to his house in Willow Lane Norwich - possibly because of difficulties in recruiting workmen to live at Fersfield. The press remained at Norwich until Blomefield's death in 1752 and also produced his Collectanea Cantabrigiensia in 1750. (See D.N.B. entry and Blomefield's correspondence N.R.O. Rye 32 and B.L. Add. MS. 6400.)

BOOKBYNDER, Adam

He became a freeman 1388 (no trade given).

BOOKBYNDER, Agnes

She was fined 12d in 1375 for trading, not being a citizen, and was listed as paying rent to the city in 1397 for her corner shop in St Michael at Plea Parish (Hudson & Tingey I p. 382 and II p. 246).

BOOKBYNDER, Thomas

He rented a tenement in St Cuthbert's parish circa 1390 (Norwich Dean & Chapter Sacrist Rolls, box 2.).

BOOTH, George

A bookseller in partnership with Thomas Booth from the time of the death of Martin Booth in 1 @83 until 1790 (N. C. 18 Oct. 1783, N. M. 4 Sep. 1790). He subscribed to Bell's Shakespeare in 1788.

BOOTH, Martin

A bookseller and bookbinder from 1756 until 1783. The son of Martin Booth, a weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder on 20 Nov. 1756. After working for Christopher Berry II he opened his own shop at the sign of "the Rising Sun and Anchor" in White Lion Lane (N.M. 25 Aug. 1759). In 1760 he took over the bookshop of Robert Goodman on the Upper Walk in the Market Place (N. M. 2 Aug. 1760). He was an active Freemason (Amherst & Le Strange) and became a Common Councillor in 1783. He also owned an extensive circulating library (Trewin & King, p. 29). He died 1783 and his business was continued by G. and Thomas Booth (N.C. 18 Oct. 1783). He was the father of William Parkinson Booth.

BOOTH, Thomas

The son of Martin and brother of William Parkinson Booth he became a freeman of the city by patrimony as a bookbinder 22 Nov. 1783. He ran his father's bookshop on the Upper Walk in the Market Place from his father's death in 1783 until 1790 in partnership with George Booth (N. C. 18 Oct. 1783 and N.M. 4 Sep. 1790). Thereafter he appears to have been in business on his own. Thomas died at the age of thirty and his shop was taken over by Robert Pearson in 1792 (N. C. 3 Mar. and N. M. 17 Mar.). (Thomas Booth should not be confused with the Norwich printer of the same name, an apprentice of Crouse and Stevenson, who became a freeman in 1802, died in 1805, and whose will is N.C.C. 102 West.)

BOOTH, William Parkinson

A bookseller, binder, and music seller at 19 London Lane from 1790 until 1798, and thereafter at 37 Market Place until circa 1825 (N.M. 30 Oct. 1790, 17 Nov. 1798 and 27 Sep. 1823). He was the Master of the local Freemason's Lodge from 1801 until 1825 (Le Strange and Amherst, & Le Strange). He became a freeman of Norwich by patrimony (the son of Martin Booth) as a bookbinder on 25 Aug. 1792. His business was however quite separate from that of his brother Thomas (N. C. 20 Nov. 1790). William operated a circulating library from around 1798 (N.M. 27 Sep. 1823). Between 1809 and 1814 the business is described on various imprints as Booth and Ball, and between 1818 and 1820 as Booth and Wright.

BOWEN, Anne

A bookseller, the widow of James Bowen, she was left destitute by her husband's sudden death in 1790 and had to be assisted by a public subscription (N. M. 20 Nov. 1790). After a few months she moved from 1 0 to 4 Cockey Lane into the shop formerly belonging to Mary Edwards (N.M. 28 May 1791). She was still in business there in 1810 (Berry).

BOWEN, James

The son of an excise officer from Hereford, he was apprenticed in London to John Marshall on 4 Jul. 1780, and became a freeman of the Stationers' Company on 7 Aug. 1787 (Stationers' Registers). He moved to Norwich and succeeded Peter Gedge as a printer and bookseller at 10 Cockey Lane (Bury and Norwich Post 25 Mar. 1789). He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase on 1 5 Jun. 1789, and printed the 1790 Norwich po.11. He died the following year and was succeeded by his widow Anne (N. M. 23 Nov. 1790). John Parslee was bound apprentice to Bowen 7 Jul. 1789 (Feather).

BRODWAY, John

He was listed with Thomas Carre on a military document of 1588, as the servant of Nicholas Colman working in the parish of St Andrew (Miscellaneous Military Documents, N.R.O. 13A).

BROMLEY, Jeremy

A bookseller in St Peter Mancroft parish from around 1607 until around 1617 and thereafter at Kings Lynn. He is first noticed in 1599 appearing on a muster on behalf of his master Thomas Ollyett. In 1607 he appeared on a muster in his own right, and from 1608 until 1614 he was represented by his own servant, Edmund Casson (Miscellaneous Military Documents, N.R.O. 13A). In 1609 he purchased a tenement in Cutler Row, St Andrew's parish, formerly in the possession of Thomas Ollyett. He sold this property again in 1614 (Court Roll 33 f.43 & Roll 34 f.53). He became a freeman by purchase, as a stationer, on 25 Feb. 1611/2, and paid rates to the Overseers of St Peter Mancroft parish until 1617. He supplied a "Court Book" to the city authorities 30 Mar. 1615 (Chamberlain's Accounts 1602-1625). His son, Thomas, was christened on 9 Jan. 1615/6, and his wife, Anne, was buried 26th February following (parish register). Jeremy Bromley appears to have moved soon afterwards to Kings Lynn where he became a freeman as a bookseller 1627/8. His son Edward became a freeman of Lynn in 1635/6 and Mayor in 1675.

BROOK, Abraham

A bookseller and bookbinder, known from 1762 until 1792. He took over the shop of John Goodwin near the sign of "the Unicorn" in the parish of St John Maddermarket, where he was an agent for the Ipswich journal (N.M. 27 Nov. 1762). He became a freeman as a bookbinder by purchase 6 Mar. 1763, and two years later he took over the shop of John Crouse at the sign of "the Bible and Star" in Cockey Lane (N.M. 4 May 1765). He was advertising an "electrical machine" for sale (N.M. 3 Mar. 1770) and was later the author of Miscellaneous experiments on electricity in 1786. In the same year he advertised from a shop in the Red Well Plain (N.M. 30 Dec. 1786). He died at the age of sixty-one in 1792 (N.M. 25 Feb. 1792).

BROWNE, Henry

A bookbinder in St Andrew's parish. He first advertised in the N. G. 4 Feb. 1727, along with his wife who taught children "plain work@' at the same address. His name appears on Window and Land Tax papers for the parish from 1727 until 1729 (N.R.O. 23A).

BROWNE, John

A bookseller near the Cross in the Market Place, he arrived from London in 1718 intending to set up in business in the city (N. G. 26 Apr. 1718).

BUCK, Ralph

A papermaker at Stoke Holy Cross, he became a freeman of Norwich in 1760 as a paper dealer and chapman. He was listed at Stoke by Pendred in 1785. Apparently either Ralph Buck or his son Robert died in 1793 when the lease of the paper-mill was advertised for sale (N.M. 20 Dec. 1793).

BUCK, Robert

The son of Ralph Buck of Stoke Holy Cross, he became a freeman of Norwich as a "paperm--" on 28 Mar. 1789.

BURGES, Elizabeth

The widow of Francis, she continued his printing business including the newspaper Norwich Post from November 1706 until her own death in August 1708, despite considerable competition (N.G. 25 Sep. 1708). Samuel Hasbart, one of her competitors, tried to take over her newspaper or amalgamate the businesses with his own in 1707, but was not successful (N. G. 20 Dec. 1707). After her death the business was continued by "the administrator of E. Burges" (who appears to have been working for Freeman Collins). See also entries for Collins and Edward Cave, below.

BURGES, Francis

The son of Francis Burges, a clerk of the Tower Liberty in London, he was bound apprentice to Freeman Collins 7 Nov. 1692, and became a freeman of the Stationers’ Company 4 Dec. 1699 (Stationers’ Registers). He moved to Norwich, "near the Red Well" and re-introduced printing to the city after an interval of one hundred and twenty years. He also founded the Norwich Post which was probably the first provincial newspaper in England. Burges is said to have begun printing in Norwich 27 Sep. 1701 with his own composition Some observations on the use and original of the noble art of printing for Thomas Goddard (B.L., Harleian Ms. 5910.II. fol.152), having concluded, whilst at London, that Norwich was "a set place or as able to maintain a printing house as Exeter, Chester, Bristol or York". Burges printed a large number of sermons and other small works whilst continuing with the production of his newspaper. A list of books for sale at his printing office (not printed by him) is given in John Jeffery’s Commemoration Sermon, 1706. He was buried in St Andrew's churchyard (Chambers, p. 11 78). The business was continued by his widow Elizabeth from November 1706.

CARLOS, James

A bookseller, bookbinder and hairdresser in Dove Lane from 1720 until 1757. He became a freeman of Norwich as a barber (by purchase) 1 8 Jun. 171 1, and his name is found on Window and Land Tax papers for the parish of St John Maddermarket from 1713 (N.R.O. 23A). He began to sell books next door to his peruke shop (N. G. 2 Jul. 1720) and finally gave up his business as a barber in order to concentrate on bookselling (N. G. 2 Sep. 1732). He also arranged book auctions (N. G. 14 Nov. 1724 and 24 Jan. 1756). Carlos published various works from 1730 including The answer unto a letter written to a Quaker in Norfolk, and A reply to the answer unto a letter written to a Quaker in Norfolk, both of that year. He also appears to have been the friend and the agent of the historian Francis Blomefield. Blomefield's correspondence indicates that Carlos had many contacts with the London book trade (N.R.O. Rye MS. 32). The bookseller died at the age of sixty-nine on 9 Aug. 1757, his business being taken over by Christopher Berry (N.M. 20 and 27 Aug. 1757). Carlos' address was given as the sign of "the Bible and Dove".

CARRE, John

A bookbinder in the parish of St Peter Mancroft circa 1622; his wife Margaret was buried in the churchyard 7 Jun. 1622 (parish register). "Wynefride Boothe singlewoman from Carre book bynder" was buried in the parish 26 Aug. 1625 (parish register): this may refer to either John Carre or Thomas Carre.

CARRE, Thomas

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1603 until 1645. The son of John Carre, a husbandman of Calthorp in Norfolk, he was apprenticed to Nicholas Colman, citizen and stationer of London, for eight years from 1582 (Arber). Carre moved to Norwich with his master about 1586, and appears to have worked for Colman as a journeyman after the completion of his apprenticeship in 1590. He became a freeman of Norwich, by service, as a stationer 4 Jan. 1601/2 and set up in business in the parish of St Peter Mancroft. His name appears on musters and other military documents for the parish from 1607 (N.R.O. Miscellaneous military documents 13A). Carre priced the inventory of Thomas Gilbert along with John Clifford 3 Jan. 1603/4 (N.C.C. Inventories INV 19/210). He supplied an Assembly Book and undertook binding work for the city authorities in 1627 and 1628 (Chamberlain's Accounts). In 1631 he published an issue of John Brinsley's The preacher's charge and people's duty. Thomas Carre was the master of William Franklin who became a freeman in 1645, and of William Girlinge who died in 1639. Carre died in 1645, a comparatively rich man; his will is N.C.C. 66 Burlye.

CARTER, Geoffrey

A sherman and bookbinder of St John Maddermarket parish from 1468 until 1505. He became a freeman of Norwich as a sherman in 1468, and his name appears on the lay subsidy for the parish in 1488. In a law suit of 1502. he was described as a Bookbinder (Plomer - Some notices). Carter died in 1505, a comparatively wealthy man. His will described him as a sherman and bookbinder, and included a legacy to the guild of St Michael in Norwich (N.C.C. Wills 196 Ryxe, 1505).

CASSON, Edmund

A bookseller and bookbinder at the sign of "the Bible" in the Market Place, St Peter Mancroft pariah, from 1613 until 1635. The son of Thomas Casson, gentleman (deceased) of London, he was apprenticed to William Firebrand, citizen and stationer of London, for eight years from 24 Jun. 1600 (Arber). Firebrand died in the year Casson would have finished his apprenticeship (1608) and Casson is found soon afterwards working for Jeremy Bromley in Norwich. He became a freeman of Norwich, by purchase, as a stationer 11 Oct. 1613. From 1620 he was the master of Henry Weston and in the years 1622 and 1623 he was the first and only warden of the short-lived Company of Stationers in Norwich (Mayors Court Book 15 f.405). In the year 1630 Casson bought a messuage in St Peter Mancroft parish "late in the occupation of Christopher Ponder" (Court Roll 37 fol. 32). Casson was the first Norwich bookseller to undertake the publication of small books, notably Alexander Neville's Norfolk furies (1615 and 1623) and Samuel Garey's Jentaculum judicum (1 623). In 1631 his name is found on the imprint of one issue of a play by Ralph Knevet Rhodon and Iris. Casson's name is also frequently found in the churchwardens' and overseers' account books for his parish; he was reasonably prosperous and paid 3d. poor rate in the year 163415. He was buried in the parish churchyard of St Peter Mancroft 18 Dec. 1635 (parish register).

CAVE, Edward

The famous printer and the founder of the Gentleman's Magazine, he lived from 1692 to 1754. According to Dr Samuel Johnson’s obituary of Cave (Gentleman's Magazine February 1754) he was:~

"bound apprentice to Mr Collins, a printer of some reputation, and a deputy alderman.... Having in only two years attained so much skill in his art, and gained so much the confidence of his master, that he was sent without any superintendent to conduct a printing-house at Norwich, and publish a weekly paper. In this undertaking he met with some opposition, which produced a public controversy, and procured young Cave the reputation of a writer. His master died before his apprenticeship was expired, and he was not able to bear the perverseness of his mistress. He therefore left her house upon a stipulated allowance, and married a young widow, with whom he lived at Bow".

johnson's account has caused many writers to speculate that Cave either 1

Johnsons’s account has caused many writers to speculate that Cave either printed the Norwich Courant or the Norwich Gazette at some t'me in the second decade of the eighteenth century. Cave was bound apprentice to Freeman Collins 6 Feb. 1709/10 (Stationers' Registers) at a time when his master appears to have been simultaneously running his own business in London and the printing office formerly owned by the Burges family in Norwich. If johnson is approximately correct, Cave was sent to Norwich early in 1711. At this time the Norwich Post was still being printed from Collins' "Red Well" printing office, and continued to be printed there for at least a year (Wiles, p. 463-5). Cave apparently remained in Norwich until after his master's death in 1713 (see entry under Collins below). Cave therefore seems to have printed the Norwich Post with the imprint "printed by the administrator of E. Burges". It is extremely doubtful that he printed the Norwich Courant which was not founded until 1713 or 1714, or the Norwich Gazette which was in opposition to Collins. (For a fuller discussion see Stoker, 'Edward Cave').

CHAPMAN, Thomas

A bookseller, cited in Plomer II from a reference in The Postman 26/28 Feb. 1702/3. (There was a man of this name living in St Andrew's parish Norwich who was described as a grocer.) He became a freeman 21 Sep. 1690, an apprentice of Carolo Gosnold. He appeared on the Norwich poll of 1710, and was buried 15 Oct. 1715 (Norwich Archdeacon's Transcripts).

CHASE, Margaret

A bookseller and printer at Cockey Lane between 1744 and 1750. The widow of William Chase, she continued most of the aspects and sidelines of his business, including the printing of the Norwich Mercury, until 1750. She was probably assisted during this period by her son William Chase II, who finally took over the business in 1750 (N.M. 24 Mar. 1750). She printed, amongst many other works, Bullock's Remarks upon a letter to the Archbishop of York and Primatt's Cursing no arguement of sincerity in )f 1746, and Thomas Herring's Directions to the Bishops of his province in 1748.

CHASE, William

A printer, bookseller, auctioneer, newspaper proprietor and entrepreneur, from 1715 until 1744; probably the most important and influential member of the eighteenth century book trade in Norwich. He was born 1692, the son of William Chase, a hosier of East Dereham (Stedman p. 318). He was bound apprentice to Thomas Goddard, and appears to have assisted Goddard's journeyman printer Sherard Sheffield in the production of the Norwich Postman. In 1707, at the age of fifteen, he took over responsibility for the printing of this newspaper for Goddard until about 1713, then printed the Transactions of the Universe for Goddard from 1713 or 1714 until about 1717. However, by 1713 he was no longer a full-time employee of Goddard.

In 1711 Chase printed Josiah Chorley's Metrical index to the Bible, for Goddard, at '4the printing press in the Market Place"; he was therefore probably independent of his former master by this time. He continued to print from this address until at least 1716 (j. Russell, A sermon concerning peoples knowing the things that belong to their peace). Chase advertised a bookshop in Dove Lane from 1714 until at least 1715 (Transactions of the Universe 17 Jul. 1714 and Plomer II). This shop may well have been the same as that of Edward Giles and Robert Thompson and after Chase, that of James Carlos. He became a freeman of the city as a bookseller (by service) 24 Feb. 1715/6. The two businesses were moved to an address in Cockey Lane about 1717 and from the Easter following he paid church rates to St Andrew's parish, and his name appears on Window and Land Tax assessments for the parish (N.R.O. 23A). Chase was appointed Deputy Collector of Stamp Duties for Norwich at this time (N. G. 8 Mar. 1718).

During the 1720s and the 1730s William Chase built up an extremely prosperous business centred around his newspapers, the Weekly Mercury c. 1722(?) until c. 1726 and the Norwich Mercury from around 1726 (and which is still being published). He also printed a large number of other publications and appears to have been the official printer and stationer to the Norwich Corporation. He sold a whole range of wares apart from books. He arranged several auctions and book sales as well as being involved in a variety of other sidelines such as the publication of maps. Some of these enterprises were in partnership with his former employer, Thomas Goddard. Chase was a Common Councillor for the Wymer Ward from 1718 until 1727 and from 1730 until his death (see Assembly Books for the period). He was also appointed by the Corporation to entertain visiting preachers on their behalf from 1721 until his death (Chamberlain's Accounts) and was appointed by the Diocese as General and Principal Apparitor (N. G. 9 Jun. 1744). Chase's one brush with authority seems to have been after criticising the scrutiny at an election in 1729, but he was soon discharged (N.M. 2 Aug. 1729 and the Norwich Quarter Sessions Minutes). Throughout his career he was the mortal enemy of Henry Crossgrove, both proprietors using their newspapers for exposing and insulting one another.

Chase died 31 May 1744, and his business was continued by his wife Margaret and later his son William 11 (N.M. 2 Jun. 1744). Chase's work as a printer was often of a mediocre or poor standard, but he was an extremely talented businessman.

CHASE, William II

A printer and bookseller in Cockey Lane from 1750 until his death in 1781. The son of William and Margaret Chase, he became a freeman bookseller 28 Jan. 1748/9, and finally took over the business of his father in 1750 (N.M. 24 Mar. 1750). He continued to print the Norwich Mercury and many books and pamphlets as well as being the printer and stationer to the Norwich Corporation. He was a Common Councillor from 1753 (Assembly Books from 1753 to 1781) and like his father he had the 'b'lity for the entertainment of visiting preachers to the city responsi 1 (Chamberlain's Accounts). He was also a trustee of the local charity school. For a short period in January 1770 he held auctions in partnership with jonathan Gleed after the bankruptcy of the latter (N.M. for Jan. 1770). Chase's printing office was moved to the corner of Cockey Lane next to Back of the Inns (N.M. 28 Apr. 1770). He died in 1781, aged 53, a very rich man. His will expresses the wish that he should be carried to his grave by six Journeymen printers (N.C.C. Wills 50 Poynter). His business was continued by his son William Chase III, his daughter Catherine Matchett and his son-in-law Thomas Holl (see also Stedman p. 70).

CHASE, William III

The son of William Chase II, he continued to publish the Norwich Mercury with his sister Catherine, Matchett and his brother-in-law Thomas Holl (N.M. 3 Mar. 1781). He also published the first Norwich Directory in 1783. From 1785 Chase was in partnership with William Yarrington and Richard Bacon, but the following year he withdrew from the partnership, although his name continued to appear in the imprint of the newspaper until 1788 (N.M. 29 Mar. 1788). (See also Stedman.)

CHRISTIAN, Albert

A refugee printer who arrived in Norwich from Holland in 1567. His name is known only from a reference on a census of aliens taken for Archbishop Parker in 1568. (A contemporary copy of this census is in the Norwich Dean & Chapter archive.) He may have worked for Anthony de Solempne. Christian was almost certainly the Vianen printer Albert Christiaensz (see Verwey).

CLIFFORD, John

A bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from 1562 until around 1612. He was an apprentice of William Gilbert, and became a freeman of Norwich as a grocer 14 Jan. 1561/2. Clifford's name appears in the Chamberlain's accounts for 1565/6 and 1591/2, having bound books for the Norwich Corporation. His name also appears on a general muster of the city, under the parish of St Andrew (N.R.O. Rye MS.361). He appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions in the same year (1 595) when he stood bail for Thomas Joyner, a husbandman. In 1603 he was one of the appraisers of the inventory of Thomas Gilbert along with Thomas Carre. In 1612 a man of this name was listed as one of the tenants living in a tenement in Cutler Row, which was transferred to Thomas Olyett (Court Roll 34 fol. 31.).

CLYATT James

A printer, the son of James Clyatt a worsted weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich 3 Dec. 1791. Between 1799 and 1806 he is listed on Norwich polls as a printer in London. He was probably the same man that printed from Grove House, Lower Marsh, Lambeth in 1804 (Todd).

COLE, John

'The N.M. 25 Feb. 1758 advertised as to be let a house in Cockey Lane, "late in the occupation of Mr John Cole, stationer". He was probably a journeyman working for another bookseller.

COLLINS, Freeman

The owner of a printing office near the Red Well in St Andrew's parish from about 170819 until 1713. The son of Thomas Collins, a clerk of Exeter, Freeman Collins was apprenticed in London 3 Mar. 1668/9 and became a freeman of the Stationers' Company on 6 Mar. 1675/6 (Stationers' Registers). He was later the master of Francis Burges, Edward Cave and Benjamin Lyon. His first apparent connection with Norwich was in 1704 when he printed Thomas Clayton's Unity of worship for Frances Oliver. However, he also appears to have had some connection with Elizabeth Burges and was possibly her father. After the death of Elizabeth Burges in 1708 Collins was the next recorded occupant of her Red Well printing office, paying Land and Window taxes on the property and church rates from Easter 1709 (N.R.O. 23A and St Andrew's parish Overseers' Accounts). The evidence from the obituary of Edward Cave suggests however that Collins may have only been the owner of the business who operated in Norwich through trusted employees (Gentleman's Magazine Feb. 1754). Certainly Collins was maintaining his London business throughout this period. In 1710 Charles Buchanan's Unity and unanimity was printed at the Red Well, Norwich, with Freeman Collins' imprint, and this was followed by a number of similar works until 1713. (Throughout this period the Norwich Post continued to be printed from the same address bearing the imprint "the administrator of E. Burges".) Collins appears to have died in 1713; works printed at the office begin to bear the name of his wife, and payments of Land and Window taxes were made by "Widow Collins" (See also Plomer II and Stoker, Edward Cave). In London Collins was a deputy alderman. His character was described by John Dunton as "so made up of justice and industry that other printers may imitate but cannot exceed".

COLLINS, Freeman II

The son of Freeman Collins, he worked for a period at the Cambridge University Press (McKenzie, Cambridge University Press). He is listed as having paid Land and Window taxes on the Red Well printing office in 1716/7 (N.R.O. 23A), but there is no other evidence to show that he ever worked in Norwich.

COLLINS, H.

The printer of the Norwich Courant after John Collins (Chambers p. 1291). He also printed the Holland merchant's companion by B.T. in 1715. He was succeeded by either Freeman II, Samuel Collins or Benjamin Lyon.

COLLINS, ' John

The printer of the Norwich Courant after Susanna Collins (Chambers, p. 1291), he paid Window and Land taxes on the shop near the Red Well 1714/5 (N.R.O. 23A). He was succeeded by either H. Collins or Samuel Collins.

COLLINS, Samuel

A printer, known only because he paid Window and Land taxes on the shop near the Red Well(N.R.O. 23A)for the period 1715/6.See also entry for H. Collins.

COLLINS, Susanna

The widow of Freeman Collins, she continued his business until at least 1714 in Norwich (possibly as late as 1717). Her name is given on the imprint of Aethiops and Aethiopedes in 1713, and she also appears to have founded the Norwich Courant newspaper in the following year (Chambers p. 1291). She is listed on Land and Window tax returns for her shop until 1714 but thereafter seems to have been succeeded by her sons (N.R.O. 23A). However, the Norwich Gazette 11 Feb. 1715/6 refers to an advertisement in Mrs Collins' news, and the same paper of 21 Sep. 1717 advertised for sale the house that was Mrs Collins' printing house. Although she appears to have ended her affairs in Norwich by 1717 she continued to bind apprentices in London until 1724 (Stationers' Registers).

COLMAN, Nicholas

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's churchyard from around 1586 until about 1602. The son of Henry Colman of Harrington, Northamptonshire, he was apprenticed to Arthur Pepwell for eight years from 1565, and later set over to Augustin Laughton. He became a freeman of the Stationers' Company 7 Jul. 1579 (Arber). He moved to Norwich around l586 and in the same year he published ballads on a fire in Beccles by Thomas Deloney and by D. Sterrie. Thomas Carre was his apprentice from 1582, and was later his journeyman. John Brodway was also employed by Colman at about the same time. Colman's name appears on musters and parish registers until 1600 when his wife was buried in St Andrew's churchyard. He also borrowed money from the Cambridge Chest charity in this parish between 1589 and 1596. Colman finally purchased his freedom of Norwich 30 Jan. 1587/8 and was in business in the city until shortly before his death in 1603, possibly leaving shortly before Thomas Carre became a freeman in 1602. Colman died in London and was buried in the churchyard of St Giles Cripplegate 3 Sep. 1603 (Miller).

CORDRAN, Robert

A bookseller and bookbinder in Great Yarmouth, he was the apprentice of Christopher Berry II and became a freeman of Norwich in 1785. He opened a shop in Old Broad Row, Great Yarmouth (N.M. 2 Sep. 1786). He appears to have advertised in partnership with Daniel Boulter between 1787 and 1793 but the exact relationship between the booksellers is not clear. Frederick Bush took over Cordran's circulating library (N.M. 13 Dec. 1794). Cordran's name is also found on Norwich polls as a bookseller in Yarmouth until 1802.

COTTON, John

A Journeyman bookbinder from 1555 until at least 1570. The son of William Cotton a carrier, he was apprenticed to Leonard Delyson from 1554/5 for eight years (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29). In 1570 he was listed as a poor man of thirty years of age living in St Martin at the Bale parish, and in the employment of Delyson (Norfolk Record Society vol. 40).

CRANFORD, Joseph

A bookseller in the Market Place, next door to the Castle and Lion, over against the Guildhall, from around 1659 until around 1664. A successful London bookseller from 1653 (see Plomer II), he later moved to Norwich. He purchased the freedom of the city for £20 1.jul. 1659: an indication that he was a man of some means. In l659 he pub1ished The agreement of the associated ministers in the county of Norfolk. In 1662 his apprentice William Oliver became a freeman of Norwich, and Cranford's name last appears on a Murage Rate for the city of 1665 (N.R.O. 10fi, although there is no record of his having made any payment. Cranford appears to have moved back to London around 1662 whilst still retaining links with Norwich through William Oliver, who had taken over his shop. In John Winter's Spicilegium published by Cranford in London in 1664 there are advertisements for works published in Norwich by William Oliver.

CRISPE, Edward

Apprentice of William Chase from 25 Mar. 1743 Feather).

CROCKETT, Martin

A bookseller in St Simon's parish from 1770 until 1793. An apprentice of Edward Walesby, he became a freeman of Norwich 24 Feb. 1770. In the 'b poll of 1780 he was described as living in the parish of St John de Sepulchre. He opened a bookshop opposite the Maid's Head (N. C. 18 May 1782) and later ran a circulating library at 18 Cook Street (Chase), which may have 1 been the same premises. Crockett died in 1793 (N.M. 26 Oct.) and was succeeded by his widow Sarah. His will is N.C.C. 179 Stills.

CROCKETT, Sarah

A bookseller, the widow of Martin. She took over her husband's business and by 1801 was living at 17 Fyebridge Street (Peck). In 1810 she was described as a bookseller living near St Simon's church (Berry).

CROSSGROVE, Henry

A printer and bookseller in St Edmund 's and later St Giles' parishes from 1706 until 1744. The son of Patrick Crossgrove, he was born at Low Leyton Essex 14 Aug. 1683 (Plomer II). He was bound apprentice to Thomas Milbourn in London 5 Aug. 1700, but he never completed his apprenticeship (Stationers' Registers). In 1706 Samuel Hasbart set up a printing office "near the Bull" in Magdalen Street, Norwich, and sent for Crossgrove to be h' journeyman. Crossgrove began printing the Norwich Gazette for Hasbart in 1706 and gradually took over more and more control of the enterprise until 1718 when he finally broke with Hasbart and moved his press to St Giles' parish (N.G. 15 Mar. 1718). He later moved his business to another address in the same parish where he remained until his death in 1744 (N.G. 26 Feb. 1737).

Crossgrove had a very stormy career as a journalist and printer; as an extreme "Tory" in the predominantly "Whig" Norwich, he made many enemies. He was arrested on two occasions, in 171 5 and 1730. On the first occasion he was indicted for High Treason and for endeavouring to raise men in rebellion, but this charge was later dismissed (Williams). In 1730 he was a party to the publication (i.e. reading aloud) of a seditious pamphlet. On this occasion he made submission and apologised. He also appeared before the Norwich Consistory Court and was punished for incontinence.

Crossgrove's lifelong enemy and major rival was William Chase, and both printers used every opportunity of insulting and exposing the untruths in each other's work. Chase could not resist pointing out to his readers that the sixty-year old Crossgrove could declare at the death of his wife that he was inconsolable and yet could then marry an eighteen-year old girl only a few weeks later (N.M. 18 May 1742).

During his career Crossgrove printed a large number of publications and ephemera, the vast majority of which were of a considerably higher standard of workmanship than those of his rivals in Norwich, and of provincial printers in general. He was also a man of some education, printing his own verses in his newspaper. In the early days the Norwich Gazette devoted a column towards answering the questions of its readers. In 1708 Crossgrove printed two volumes of these questions and answers under the titles The accurate intelligencer and Appolinaria. He was also the friend and correspondent of the ecclesiastical historian John Strype (B.L.Add MS. 5853).

Crossgrove became a freeman of Norwich as a printer on 18 Jun. 1710 by purchase, and a Common Councillor for the Ward over the Water from 1728 until his death. He was the master of Stephen White, and his daughter Pleasance was married to Robert Davy (Blomefield vol. 10, p. 235). He died 12 Sep. 1744 (N.G. 15 Sep. 1744); his will is Norwich Archdeaconry Book 64, file 61. His printing business and newspaper were continued by his second wife Mary and Robert Davy.

CROSSGROVE, Mary

.The second wife of Henry Crossgrove (q.v.) having married in 1742 when she was eighteen (N.M. 18 May 1742). On the death of her husband in 1744 she continued his business for two months in partnership with Robert Davy; thereafter she appears to have retired (N.G. 15 Sep. until 24 Nov. 1744).

CROTCH, Adam

A bookbinder, the son of Michael Crotch, he is recorded as having buried a son in St Stephen's churchyard 14 Jul. 1666 (parish register), but he did not become a freeman of that trade until 11 Jan. 1677/8. He is listed in the Mayor's Court book in Jan. 1707/8, when an action against Ezekiel Ulver was transferred to the Sheriff's Court. On the 1710 poll he was listed in St Stephen's parish, but his name does not appear on the poll of 1714.

CROTCH, John

A bookbinder, the son of Michael Crotch, he became a freeman of Norwich 11 Jan. 1677/8. His name appears in the St Peter Mancroft parish registers 2 Jul. 1693 when he buried his son.

CROTCH, Matthew

A bookbinders St Peter Mancroft parish from around 1714 until around 1732; he was probably related to the other Norwich bookbinders with this surname. In 1714 he was bound over in recognizances of £100 to reappear at the next Assizes and answer "such high misdemeanours as shall be charged against him by William Williamson, John Minns and William Mesome" (Quarter Sessions Minutes 26 Oct. 1714: the Assize records have not survived). He advertised from a shop in Cockey Lane in 1724 and 1729 (N. G. 7 Mar. 1724 and N.M. 19.jul. 1729). He was the master of John Goodson from 1731. In 1732 he advertised from a shop near the "John of All Sorts" and was in some way associated with Thomas Goddard (N. G. 25 Nov. 1732).

CROTCH, Michael

A bookbinder, probably of St Peter Mancroft parish, from 1631 until at least 1652 and possibly 1663/4. The son of Nathan Crotch a worsted weaver, he obtained his freedom as a bookbinder 4 Jan. 1631/2. It is interesting to note that he appears to have been in prison at this time. According to the Quarter Sessions Minutes he was imprisoned 12 Dec. 1631 until he could find sureties, and was also fined £10, the crime not being stated. He had to remain in prison 6 Mar. 1631/2 but was freed 15 Sep. 1632, having found sureties of twenty pounds for his good behaviour. He also had to appear before the Court and produce recognizances 19 Feb. 1632/3 and 24 Aug. 1643. Michael Crotch is the only legatee mentioned in the will of Abraham Atfend. In the St Peter Mancroft Churchwardens' accounts there are two payments to "goodman Croch" for repairing books in 1663/4. It is possible that Michael may still have been alive in 1677/8 when his sons Adam and John became freemen.

CROUSE, John

A printer, bookseller and binder from 1760 until 1796. An apprentice of William Chase II from 20 Apr. 1752 (Feather - under Cruse), he bought the stock (but not the shop) of Robert Goodman (N. M. 19,' Jul. 1760) and set up in business at the "Bible and Star" in Cockey Lane. In the same year he printed John Fransham's An essay on the Oestrum. In 1761 he revived the title of Norwich Gazette on a newspaper, but this was later changed to the Norfolk Chronicle in 1769 (see Stedman, p. 11 4). He became a freeman of Norwich 6 Mar. 1763 and a Common Councillor for the Mancroft Ward from 1778. Crouse opened a printing office "over Mr Lewis' warehouse Upper Market Place" (N.M. 28 Jun. 1766) at which address he was listed by Pendred circa 1785. The premises are listed by Chase as no. 47, and as "the Norfolk Arms" by his newspaper advertisements in the 1790s. He printed various maps in the 1770s and 1780s (Chubb). John Crouse became a partner with William Stevenson in 1785 and also with Jonathan Matchett from 1796 (Stedman). He died later in 1796 (N.C. 19 Nov.) and the business was continued by his two partners. Crouse was the master of Thomas Booth and William Baker, and a ' part proprietor of the Norwich Theatre Royal, doing much of the printing for this enterprise (Stedman).

CROWE, William

A printer, the son of William Crowe a worsted weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich 4 Sep. 1793.

CURRY, Michael

A printer who gave his address in 1768 as "St Peter Mancroft parish". He had been employed by John Wilkes, but afterwards he gave information against his employer, for which reason no-one in London would employ him. He retired to Norwich where he died in 1788 (Gentleman's Magazine LVIII 1788 p. 752, and N.R.O. MS. Walsingham LV). Curry may possibly have worked for Richard Beatniffe from 1766.

CUSHING, %John

A bookbinder and stationer, the son of Samuel Cushing a carver, he became a freeman of Norwich 8 Sep. 1794. He was listed on a sheriff’s poll of 1797 and by Peck in 1802 in St John Maddermarket parish.

BAVEY, Thomas

A schoolmaster, his name is found on the imprint of Armand's Sermon on the spirit of the Gospel (Norwich, 1763) as the vendor and translator.

DAVY, Robert

A printer and bookseller from 1744 until around 1768. The son-in-law of Henry Crossgrove, he continued his father-in-law's business in .partnership with Mary Crossgrove for a few months, and then from 24 Nov. 1744 on his own. He continued to print the Norwich Gazette until at least 1749, and then a paper called the Norwich journal from circa 1751 'I circa 1753 (Wiles). In 1749, in an attempt to increase sales of the Norwich Gazette, he gave away free copies of songs and plays with the newspaper (N. G. 23 Sep. 1749). In 1753 Davy became a Methodist and a Trustee of the Norwich Tabernacle (Quarter Sessions Minutes 4 May 1753), and after this date he printed chiefly Methodist works such as James Wheatley's Chronicle of the preacher. The last known works printed by Davy were two sermons by Cornelius Cayley in 1758, but his name continued to appear on Norwich polls, as a printer, until 1768.

DELYSON, Leonard

A bookseller and binder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1550 until 1571. • Dutchman, he became naturalised 29 Oct. 1550 (Huguenot Society Denizations) and became a freeman of Norwich by purchase 24 Feb. 1550/1. He buried a daughter, Judith, 1 May 1552 and christened a son, Robert, 1 Apr. 1565 (St Peter Mancroft parish registers). He was the master of Henry Reynold from 1551, John Cotton from 1554/5, and Nicholas Nicker from about 1561. He died 13 Apr. 1571, his nuncupative will (N.C.C. 201 Brugge) shows that he was insolvent at the time of his death.

DENNY, Robert

A printer in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1787 until 1807. An apprentice of John Crouse, he became a freeman of Norwich 24 Feb. 1787, and his name appears in poll books until 1807, but was not included in Peck's Norwich Directory of 1801; this may indicate that he was a journeyman. A Frederick Robert Denny (possibly a son) became a freeman of Norwich 3 May 1806, an apprentice of Richard Bacon.

DIXON, John

The son-in-law and principal legatee of Thomas Goddard, who died in 1751. He continued the business in St Peter Mancroft parish, and advertised in the Norwich Mercury in December 1751. He was an agent for the Norwich journal (copy for 2 Jun. 1753). He is next known in 1755 when he took orders for Six new English songs by Miller (N.M. 30 Aug. 1755). Dixon's name is last found on the imprint of a map of Norfolk in 1757 (Chubb).

DOWNES, John

A printer and bookseller in Great Yarmouth from around 1780 (Fawcett). He was in partnership with John March from 1784, when they took over the bookshop of William Eaton at the corner' of Gurney's Bank Row (Farrell). The partnership was dissolved (N.M. 11 May 1793) and Downs continued in business until well into the nineteenth century. He was still alive in 1817 (Farrell). Downs appears to have had some connection with Norwich as he was eligible to vote in the 1802 Norwich poll as a bookbinder in Great Yarmouth.

EDWARDS, Jacob

A bookseller and binder at 6 Pottergate, St John Maddermarket parish from 1783 until 1790. He is listed by Chase at the above address, and advertised a circulating library (N.M. 31 May 1783). He died 1790 and the business was continued by his widow Mary (N. M. 30 Oct. 1790). (He may be the same man of this name who was listed as a toyman of this parish on the 1780 Norwich poll.)

EDWARDS, Mary

The widow of Jacob, she moved the business to Cockey Lane (N.M. 30 Oct. 1790). However, she soon gave up the business as a result of ill health, and her shop was taken over by Anne Bowen (N.M. 28 May 1791).

ELDRIDGE, Thomas

An auctioneer, spirit and tobacco merchant, and bookseller from 1731 until 1744. (He was also possibly a printer but this seems unlikely.) He advertised books from his shop in St Gregory's churchyard (N. G. 20 Feb. 1731 and at various other times), and also refers to brandy vaults at the above address. In 1738 he published An autbentick history of the antient City of Norwich and in 1745 Incomparable varieties (a book of medicinal remedies). In 1739 he moved his shop to the mouth of London Lane (N. G. 7 Apr. 1739) and by 1744 his address was given as the "Daffeys Elixir Warehouse, St Lawrence parish". It was from this address that he claimed to have printed the Norwich Journal, a spurious local newspaper edited by "Proteus Puff" 1744.

FERGUSON, John

A bookseller and binder at 9 Little Cockey Lane from 1739 until 1785. He became a freeman of Norwich as a bookseller by purchase 24 Feb. 1739/40, and advertised from the above address (N. G. 3 May 1740). He issued a catalogue from the above (N. M. 23 Jan. 1768) and is listed in the Norwich poll of 1784, and by Pendred the year following.

FIDDY, Harbord

An apprentice of Stephen White, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 24 Feb. 1784. He is listed on the 1786 Norwich poll as a printer in St Stephen's parish, but on the polls of 1787 and 1790 his trade is given as a schoolmaster.

FISH, Thomas

A bookbinder in St Benedict's parish from 1790 until around 1794. An apprentice of Martin Crockett, he became a freeman of Norwich 24 Feb. 1790. H's name appears on the 1794 Norwich poll at the above address, but on that of 1799 he is listed as living in London.

FRANKLIN, William

A bookseller and bookbinder in the Market Place from 1645 until 1664. As an apprentice of Thomas Carre, he was a witness to the will of William Girlinge in 1639. He became a freeman of Norwich 26 Sep. 1645 and had a shop "next to the George". In 1646 he published Vox Norwici, in answer to the tract Vox populi, and the following year John Brinsley's Stand still He had published more than a dozen works by 1660. On the death of Edward Martin in 1654, Franklin purchased his shop at the sign of "the Upper halfe moone" on the west side of the Market Place (Norwich Court Roll 40 fol. 36) for £300. In 1656 Franklin and his wife, Hester, transferred property in St Stephen's parish to another (ibid fol. 43). Franklin was a Common Councillor from March 1656/7 until March 1664/5 for Mancroft ward, during which time he served on a committee to enquire into the state of the postal service from the City (Assembly Book and Court Book for 1656). He appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions 15 Sep. 1645 and 23 Apr. 1660 for unspecified reasons, and in 1662 he donated two pounds towards a gift to Charles II (Norfolk Record Society vol. 1). He was assessed on goods to the value of six pounds in February 1664/5, and paid one pound rate in 1661 (St Peter Mancroft overseers' accounts). His name is also found on an address to General Monck by the gentry of Norfolk and Norwich of 1660 (N.R.O.), indicating that he was considered a man of some substance 'n the city. Franklin died in 1664 and was buried in St Peter's churchyard 9 May 1664 (parish register); his will is N.C.C. 103 Stockdell. Franklin was the master of John Sprat and William Nowell.

GAGE, Thomas

A bookseller at 20 Red Lion Lane from around 1792 until around 1800 (Universal British Directory and Peck). He advertised in the Norwich Mercury for 12 Apr. 1794. He may have died in 1800 and been succeeded by his widow M. A. Gage (see addenda to the 1802 edition of Peck).

GARDINER, John

His name is given on the 1799 Norwich poll as a printer living in London.

GEDGE, Peter

The grandson of William Chase and the son of Peter Gedge, a worsted weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 21 Aug. 1779 (see also Stedman p. 179). One of the three founders of the Bury and Norwich Post in 1782, he was the sole proprietor from 1784 until 1818 (Stedman). He opened a medicine, music, and perfumery warehouse in Norwich at 10 Cockey Lane in May 1786 and disposed of it to James Bowen about March 1789 (Bury and Norwich Post 17 May 1786 and 25 Mar. 1789). He died 7 Jan. 1818 (Bury and Norwich Post 14 Jan. 1818).

GILBERT, George

A bookseller and schoolteacher in Magdalen Street, he first advertised in the Norwich Mercury l Sep. 1759. The following year he advertised the sale of all his wares and went out of business (N.M. 19 Jan. 1760).

GILBERT, Thomas

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from around 1559 until 1603. His name appears on various military documents for the parish between 1569 and 1588 (N.R.O. case 13A) and he figures regularly in the Cambridge Chest charity accounts as having borrowed money between 1582 and 1591. His son, William, became a freeman in 1602 as a tailor, and another son, Thomas, was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 26 Mar. 1603 (parish register). Gilbert was the master of Thomas Ollyett who became a freeman in 1593, and in the following year he was bound over for ten pounds in the Mayor's Court, a reputed father of an illegitimate child (Court Book 15 Jun. 1594). He died in 1603, leaving all of his possessions to his wife Dorothy (N.C.C. Wills 9 Norfforthe). An inventory of Gilbert's effects was priced by Thomas Carre and John Clifford and was valued at £166 3s 4d (N.C.C. Inventories INV 19/210).

A bookseller with this name is known in London between 1588 and 1590 (McKerrow). He may also have been the man of this name mentioned by the Morris Dancer William Kemp, in his account of his reception in Norwich (Kemp's nine daies wonder).

GILBERT, William

Probably a bookseller, he was the master of John Clifford and possibly the father of Thomas Gilbert. He became a freeman of Norwich as a grocer 1531/2.

GILES, Edward

A bookseller in St Andrew's and later St John Maddermarket parishes between 1678 and 1711. He may be the Edward Giles who became a freeman of Norwich as a cordwainer in 1656, but is not otherwise known until he published John Collinges' Several discourses in 1678. During his career Giles published a large number (probably more than fifty) of often quite substantial works. Many of these were the writings of non- conformist divines such as John Collinges, Martin Finch, and Samuel Snowden, and this may explain why he seems to have had very few dealings with the city authorities. On one occasion he was however questioned along with George Rose about a seditious pamphlet (Calendar of State Papers Domestic SP 44/56 28.2.1687/8). About 1690 Giles moved his business from St Andrew's parish near the Market Place, to Dove Lane, St John Maddermarket parish, where he remained until his death in 1711. In 1710 this property was assessed for the purposes of Window Tax; having twelve windows it paid a tax of 6d. and was therefore one of the largest properties in the parish. Giles was buried in the parish churchyard on 28 May 1711 (parish register). His will (Norwich Archdeaconry Court file 61) is rather complicated, with the business passing to his son-in-law and former apprentice Robert Tompson. Giles was mentioned by John Dunton who described him as being honest, "and has met with very good success in his way, but the booksellers in the country cannot in a settled way, either ruin or enrich themselves so soon as those in London".

GIRLINGE, William

A journeyman bookseller in the employment of Thomas Carre from around 1611 until 1638. His name first appears on a Muster as Carre's servant in 1611 (N.R.O. 13A). He was bound over to keep the peace at the Norwich Quarter Sessions 10 Aug. 1629 for an unspecified reason. Girlinge was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 8 Oct. 1638 (parish register), and his will was proved in 1639 (N.C.C. 93 Green). Carre was the executor and principal legatee; William Franklin was one of the witnesses.

GLEED, Jonathan

A bookseller in Cockey Lane from 1740 until 1763. An apprentice of Thomas Goddard, he took over the shop of Frances Oliver (N. G. 29 Mar. 1740) and became a freeman of Norwich 3 May 1741. Around 1749 he extended the scope of his business to include auctioneering (N.M. 8 Jul. 1749) and from around 1754 he also operated as a moneylender (N. M. 12 Oct. 1754). He published several sermons between 1743 and 1759, and in the latter year he issued a catalogue of his stock. Gleed's bookshop was taken over by Richard Beatniffe (N.M. 21 May 1763), with Gleed continuing in business as a general auctioneer until about 1770. Around 1765 or 1766 he was declared bankrupt (N. M. 1 Feb. 1766). For a time in January 1770 a man named Jonathan Gleed was in partnership with William Chase II in several auctions (see N. M. for this period) but this may refer to the son of the bookseller, who became a freeman as attorney 3 May 1771 and continued as an auctioneer for several years.

GODDARD, Thomas

A bookseller and printer, near the Guildhall in the Market Place from 1695 until 1751. An apprentice of George Rose, he became a freeman as a bookseller 19 Dec. 1698, but is listed as paying rates on his premises from 1695 (St Peter Mancroft churchwardens' accounts). In 1706 he founded the third Norwich newspaper, the Norwich Postman, which was printed for him firstly by Sherard Sheffield and then in the following year by his apprentice William Chase. This paper was succeeded by the Transactions of the Universe, again printed by Chase for Goddard, around 1713/4. Goddard appears to have gradually lost his control over this paper to the printer by about 1718. During the early part of his career Goddard published a large number of works, including the first item to be printed in Norwich by Francis Burges. Also, after William Chase had set up in business on his own account, Goddard undertook a certain amount of small scale printing work, including John Hurrion's The hope and resurrection of the dead in 1712, and "jobbing work" such as Francis Blomefield's circular letter which was used in the compilation of his history. Undoubtedly Goddard's business prospered more from his bookselling and auctioneering than from printing or from publishing his newspapers. Throughout his long career he regularly advertised books and arranged auctions, many of which were in conjunction with his former apprentice William Chase. He also co-operated with the latter in the publication of maps (N.M. 24 Jul. 1731). Amongst other sidelines, Goddard sold patent medicines and groceries, he made payments of tithes for the clergy, in London, and made several attempts to be appointed the collector of stamp duties for Norwich (see Calendar of Treasury Books for the period 1710-1718). He finally became sub-collector in 171 8. Goddard also served as a Common Councillor for the Mancroft ward from 1744 until 1746. Goddard died 13 Feb. 1751 at a very advanced age (N.M. 16 Feb. 1751), and his will shows him to have been a very wealthy man (Norwich Archdeaconry Court Wills). His business was left Jointly to his widow and to his son-in-law John Dixon, who continued to sell books at his shop for a few years. Goddard was the master of Christopher Berry and Jonathan Gleed.

GOODMAN, Robert

A bookseller @'next to the Falcon, Dukes Palace", and later '@near the Mitre, Upper Walk in the Market Place", from 1734 until 1759. He first advertised books (N.G. 24 Aug. 1734) and moved to his later address (N. G. 12 Mar. 1737). He published The records of the city of Norwich 17368 together with various other small books; his name is also found on the imprint of two Norfolk maps (Chubb). The Norwich journal of 2 Jun. 1753 described Robert Goodman's shop as being in Dove Lane (but it may have been on the corner with the Market Place and so he had not necessarily moved from his last known address). Goodman died 1759 and his business was continued by his widow Sarah (N.M. 9jun. 1759). His will is in Norwich Archdeaconry Court wills fol. 38.

GOODMAN, Sarah

The widow of Robert Goodman, she continued the business for a few months, but later sold her stock to John Crouse (N. M. 19 Jul. 1760), and her shop to Martin Booth (N.M. 2 Aug. 1760).

GOODSON, John

The son of Francis, he became an apprentice bookbinder to Matthew Crotch 25 Mar. 1731 (Feather).

GOODWIN, John

A bookseller in Dove Lane, "near the sign of the Unicorn", from 1731 until 1762. He advertised in the Norwich Gazette 14 Aug. 1731, and in 1753 published The chronicle of the preacher. His shop was taken over by Abraham Brooke in 1762 (N. M. 27 Nov. 1762). He may be the same John Goodwin who died in 1769 (N. C. 21 Oct. 1769).

GOODWIN, John

The son of John Goodwin, a baker, he became a freeman of Norwich as a stationer 9 Jan. 1799.

GOODWIN, William

A Mr William Goodwin, Bookseller of Norwich subscribed to Blomefield circa 1739. This may have been a mistake for John Goodwin.

GREENVILLE, James

A printer in St John Maddermarket parish from 1794 until 1806. The son of Strena Greenville he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 22 Feb. 1794. His name appeared on a Sheriff's poll of 1797 and on various Norwich polls from 1799 until 1806, but he was not recorded by Peck in 1801. He may therefore have been working as a journeyman.

GREENVILLE, Strena

The son of Samuel Greenville, a Norwich barber, he was apprenticed to the Ipswich printer J. Bagnall for seven years from 3 Apr. 1733, and became a freeman of the Stationers' Company 5 May 1741 (Feather). He became a freeman of Norwich by patrimony, as a printer 17 Mar. 1744, but by 1768 he was listed on a Norwich poll as a printer in Cambridge. He was the father of James Greenville.

HANSARD, Luke

An apprentice of Stephen White from around 1764 until around 1772, he later 6ecame famous as the printer of Parliamentary debates. He left a vivid picture of his work in Norwich in his memoirs (see Trewin & King). Plomer III suggests that he spent a short period as an assistant to John Crouse, but this seems unlikely.

HART, Sophia

An apprentice bookbinder to Edward Walesby from 1 Dec. 1751 (Feather).

HARVEY, Benjamin

Probably a bookseller, living in St Peter Mancroft parish from circa 1747 'I 1763. He paid rates and Land and Window Taxes during this period (returns in N.R.O.) and he died in the latter year (St Peter Mancroft Overseers' Accounts). In 1755 his name is found on the imprint of William Crisp's Divine harmony and he is listed as having subscribed for 20 copies.

HASBART, Samuel

A distiller and later a newspaper proprietor living in St Edmund's parish, he founded the Norwich Gazette and employed Henry Crossgrove as the printer from 1706 until some time before 1718. In 1707 he attempted to merge his newspaper with, or to take over, the Norwich Post but was unsuccessful (N.G. 20 Dec. 1707). He finally broke with Crossgrove in 1718 after a dispute about payments, and as a result Crossgrove moved his printing business and newspaper to Giles' parish. Hasbart then arranged for Thomas Gent, a London printer, to come to Norwich and print another paper, but at the last moment Gent was forced to visit Ireland and so Robert Ralkes was sent to Norwich in his place (Gent p. 77-8). Raikes printed a paper for Hasbart for a few weeks in the Spring of 1718 (see N. G. April-June 1718).

HOLL, (Augustine) Thomas

The son-in-law of William Chase II, he was a printer at 12 Cockey Lane until around 1785 (Stedman, p. 71 & 318). The son of Augustine M. Holl, gardiner, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer and stationer 19 Feb. 1774. For a while he was in partnership with William Chase 111 (N. M. 3 Mar. 1781) and is last mentioned by Pendred in 1785.

HOLLAWAY, Edmund

A bookbinder at the sign of "the Bible and Crown" in Cockey Lane, from 1710 until around 1713. The son of John Hollaway of Lavington in Wiltshire, he was apprenticed to Richard Cumberland of London 6 Aug. 1694 (Stationers' Registers). He became a freeman of the London Stationers Company 2 Nov. 1702. He arrived in Norwich from London in August 1710 (N.G. 2 Sep. 1710) and took over the shop that had been owned by Samuel Selfe. Hollaway is listed on Land and Window Tax papers for the parish of St Peter Mancroft until 1713 but is not known afterwards (N.R.O. 23A).

JAGGER, Benjamin

A carver, gilder, and print seller at 30 London Lane, from 1762 until around 1793. He became a freeman of Norwich as a carver 21 Sep. 1762, and in 1778 sold portrait prints of William Crotch the Norwich child prodigy. He is listed at the above address by Chase in 1783, and he advertised in the N. C. for 26 Jan. 1793, having taken his eldest son to work with him.

JAMES, Thomas

A bookbinder and stationer in St Peter Mancroft parish from before 1622 'I 1629. He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase 1 0 Mar. 1622/3, but had already sealed apprenticeship indentures between himself (as master) and Edward Martin before this date. He paid £3 6s 8d for his freedom and was therefore considered to be reasonably well off at this time. He supplied a Court Book in 1624 (Chamberlain's Accounts). James died in May 1629, and there exists an interesting inventory of his house, shop, stock, and tools (N.C.C. Inventories INV 35/104). At the time of his death he appears to have had very little property. James was also the master of Benjamin Wellham.

JASON (JASS), Pieter

An alien bookseller who came from the Low Countries and settled in Norwich in 1562. He is listed, with his wife and son, on a census of aliens compiled in 1568 (see under Christian). (Walter Rye printed a transcript of this document in Norfolk Antiquarian Miscellany 1st series, vol. 3, but he did not consult a contemporary copy of the document, and so the name is wrongly transcribed as Jass rather than Jason.)

JOHNSON, James

An apprentice of Richard Bacon, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 3 May 1798.

JOHNSON, Lewis

The son of Lewis Johnson, a barber, he became a freeman of Norwich as a stationer 30 Aug. 1794.

KEER, John

The son of Henry Keer a peruke maker, he became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder 24 Feb. 1795.

KEYMER, John

The son of James Keymer, a surgeon, he became a freeman of Norwich 13 May 1797. In the 1799 poll he is listed as a bookbinder in Ipswich, and in 1802 in Great Yarmouth. In 1811 he was at King Street, Great Yarmouth (Ramsden).

KING, Samuel

A map seller and land surveyor, near Charing Cross, his name appeared on the imprints of two maps in 1766 (Chubb).

KINNEBROOK, William

A bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish, he lived from 1775 until 1861. The son of Daniel Kinnebrook, a joiner, he became a freeman of Norwich 13 May 1797, and is listed in polls until 1807. In the 1812 poll he was described as a printer, and from 1816 he was a partner with Richard Mackenzie Bacon (Stedman, pp. 100-2).

LEMON, Nicholas

A bookseller (in Norwich?) in 1718. His name is found on the imprint of The history of the city of Norwich printed by Benjamin Lyon in that year.

LINDLEY, Benjamin

The son of John Lindley, a cordwainer, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 25 Feb. 1784.

LUBBOCK, H.

H. Lubbock purchased binding materials from the trustees of James Robinson (N.M. 17 Sep. 1796): this was possibly a mis-print for William Lubbock.

LUBBOCK, William

A bookseller, opposite Queen Street, near the Red Well, in the parish of St Michael at Plea. The son of Richard Lubbock, a baker, he became a freeman of Norwich 2 Jul. 1790. He opened a shop and a circulating library (N.M. 23 Mar. 1799), but sold his stock to J. Hunt in the following year (N.M. 13 Sep. 1800). He is listed on the 1799 Norwich poll, but that for 1802 lists him at Lammas in Norfolk.

LYNGE, Nicholas

The son of John Lynge, a Norwich parchmentmaker, he became a very successful London bookseller between 1579 and 1607 (see McKerrow). There is evidence to show that Lynge spent at least five of these years (1585-90) in Norwich. An apprentice was bound to Lynge in London 25 Mar. 1585 "provided alwaies and yt is agreed that yf the said Nicholas Linge shall Departe with Any of his shoppes That then he shall put out his Apprentice to some of ye cumpanie". The apprentice in question was put over to Symon Waterson 6 Dec. 1585 (Arber). Nicholas Lynge became a freeman of Norwich by patrimony 7 Aug. 1585 and so was presumably living in the city at this time, his trade being given as "stationer". The will of John Lynge, dated 1590, refers to tenements in Norwich in the possession of his son (N.C.C. Wills 608 Flack). In the year following his father's death, Nicholas Lynge is once again noticed as being in London (Arber). He died between 1607 and 1610 and his will is Prerogative Court of Canterbury 58 Wingfield.

LYON, Benjamin

A printer near the Red Well in St Andrew's parish between 1717 and 1718. An apprentice of Freeman Collins from 1 Jul. 1706, he became a freeman of the London Stationers' Company 5 Jul. 1714 after the death of his master. He appears to have continued to work for Susanna Collins, and when she decided to sell her Norwich business and the Norwich Courant newspaper at Michaelmas 1717 (N. G. 21 Sep. 1717), he became the master of the business. He was certainly still printing a newspaper in May 1718 (N. G. 24 May 1718). He also printed in the same year, The history of the city of Norwich and A true description of the city of Norwich, but he is not known after this date. Lyon's disappearance maybe connected with an appearance before the Norwich Quarter Sessions 11 Nov. 1717, when he had to find recognizances of £60 to reappear and answer a charge of printing a libel paper. His reappearance is not noted in the Quarter Sessions Minutes and the Assize records for this period have been lost. He was possibly the "B. Lyon" who introduced printing to the city of Bath (Plomer II).

MACKWORTH, Henry

He may have been a bookseller or printer. He is known only from an advertisement in the Norwich Mercury for 11 Jan. 1755, selling a mathematical table printed by himself.

MANTHORPE, James

A bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1685 until circa 1697. The son of Robert Manthorpe, a tailor, he became a freeman of Norwich 21 Oct. 1685. (He had earlier appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions on 17 Jul. 1685 and was bound over together with his father to appear before the Mayor's Court.) He paid overseers' rates in his parish from 1690 until 1697, and in a Poll Tax return for that parish in 1693/4 he was described as being single and with no servants (N.R.O. 7k).

MARCH, John

A printer, bookseller, and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish and in Great Yarmouth. The son of Thomas March, a hot-presser, he became a freeman of Norwich 7 Dec. 1776. At some time before 1780 he moved to Great Yarmouth, and is described as a printer there on a Norwich poll of that year. He was in partnership with John Downes of King Street in that town before 1785 (Pendred) and until 1793 (N.M. 11 May 1793), but the Universal British Directory compiled about this time lists him at London Lane, Norwich. He was certainly at Cockey Lane, Norwich, soon afterwards (N.M. 31 Aug. 1793). From this address he printed G. C. Morgan's Lectures on electricity. March is last known in Norwich on the Sheriff's poll of 1797 in St Andrew's parish. He later went to the U.S.A. and died in Washington in 1804. (See also Nichols.)

MARCOLL, Nicholas

The son of Walter Marcoll, a worsted weaver, he was an apprentice of Thomas Ollyett. He became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder 24 Feb. 1610/1.

MARTIN, Edward

A bookseller and binder at the sign of "the Upper halfe moone" in the Market Place from 1627 until 1654. Although he was an apprentice of Thomas James he had to purchase his freedom of the city for £1 13s 4d because Thomas James had not been a freeman when Martin's indentures were sealed (Foreign Receiver's accounts). He became a freeman bookbinder 5 Jan. 1628/9, but he had been described as a stationer as early as 21 Oct. 1627 (St Peter Mancroft churchwardens' accounts). He supplied a new Book of Common Prayer to this church in 1630, and paid one penny poor rate in 1634/5 (ibid). Martin appeared twice before the Norwich Quarter Sessions: on 3 Apr. 1637 he stood bail for another, and on the 8 Apr. 1650 he appeared for an unspecified reason. Martin's publications included An hue and cry after Vox populi 1646, Matthew Hopkins' Discovery of witches 1647, and John Robinson's Miscellaneous propositions and quaeries 1649. He died in 1654 and was buried in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 3 Mar. 1653/4 (parish register). Martin's servant, Robert Bartlett died at the same address and was buried 1 Nov. 1654. The shop was later used by William Franklin.

MARTIN, John

A bookbinder around 1639. He is known only from an entry in the Mayor's Court Book for 20 Jul. 1639: this was possibly a clerical error for Edward Martin.

MATCHETT, Catherine

The daughter of William Chase II, she was the widow of a Norwich surgeon. For a time, after the death of her father in 1781, she was associated with the printing of the Norwich Mercury until her brother, William Chase III, came of age (Stedman p. 71). She married William Stevenson in 1783, who was later a partner with John Crouse in the proprietorship of the Norfolk Chronicle. She was the mother of Jonathan Matchett and Seth William Stevenson (see Stedman and Chambers).

MATCHETT, Jonathan

A printer in the Upper Market Place from 1795 until 1844. The son of Catherine Matchett and the step-son of William Stevenson, he was an apprentice to the firm of Crouse & Stevenson, and became a freeman of Norwich 3 May 1795. The previous year he had been taken into the partnership by his masters in the proprietorship of the Norfolk Chronicle. In the 1797 Sheriff's poll he was listed in St George's parish (probably his residence). He became a senior partner in the firm in 1821 and died 24 Nov. 1844 (see Stedman pp. 140-52).

MAWDESLEY, John

He became a freeman of Norwich in 1536 as a "bookmaker" but is not otherwise known.

MILLER, William Richard Beckford

The son of Thomas Miller, a grocer, he became a freeman of Norwich 4 Sep. 1790 as a stationer, but soon afterwards moved to London. He later joined his father who had become a bookseller of some repute in Bungay (see Dibdin).

NAVEGEER, Gilles

A bookbinder in 1567. An alien, he is known only from a letter (reprinted in Tawney & Power) which stated that he had trained as a bookbinder in Norwich, but he had given it up after a few months because it did not bring in enough work.

NEVILL, William

A bookseller in St Peter Mancroft parish from 1644 until 1660. He purchased his freedom of Norwich 17,' Jul. 1644 for £6 (Foreign Receiver's accounts). He paid overseers' rates to the parish until 1645, but is not noticed again until 12 May 1660 when he and his wife, Elizabeth, transferred a property at St Martin at Bale parish (Norwich Court Roll 40 fol. 84). (A man of this name was bound apprentice to Philip Nevill, a London stationer, for seven years from 2 Sep. 1639, and apparently never finished his apprenticeship (Stationers' Registers).)

NEWMAN, Robert

A printer, near the Red Well in St Andrew's parish, from around 1753 until around 1763. He printed The antichronicle and various other small works (N. M. 3 Aug. 1754). In 1759 he printed Matthew Hale's The great audit, and four years later he opened an office for miscellaneous intelligence at his printing shop (N. M. 19 Nov. 1763). (A man of this name and of the same parish was described as a schoolmaster in the N.M. 16 Nov. 1744.)

NICKER, Nicholas

An apprentice bookbinder, bound to Leonard Delyson from about 1561 until around 1570. He is known only from the records of a dispute with his master in which John Cotton (another of Delyson's apprentices) was also examined (N.R.O. 12a.ld Interrogations and Depositions).

NOWELL, William

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from 1659 until 1669. An apprentice of William Franklin, he became a freeman of Norwich 3 May 1659, and in the following year he published some tracts by Theophilus Brabourne on the Restoration. In 1660 he also signed an address from the Gentry of Norfolk and Norwich to General Monck (N.R.O.). In 1662 he contributed five shillings towards a gift to Charles II (Norfolk Record Society vol. 1). From 1663 until 1669 he shared the job of entertaining the visiting preachers on behalf of the city with William Oliver (Chamberlain's accounts and Mayor's Court Book 14 Oct. 1665). He was also employed by the Mayor's Court to keep its members informed of the news from London, and was paid £1 each quarter for this (ibid. 13 Oct. 1666). One newsletter addressed to Nowell and dated 29 Sept. 1666 is preserved in the P.R.O. (see Calendar of State Papers Domestic for this date). He also sold patent medicines and his name is found on an advertisement for Plercy's Lozenges along with the names of several other provincial booksellers in 1665 (B.L. 551.d.19(16)). Nowell is recorded in various parish records until 1669, and in October of that year he appears to have given up his official duties to William Oliver (Mayor's Court Book 20 Oct. 1669). A man of this name was buried in the churchyard of St John Maddermarket in 1683 (parish register).

OLIVER, Elizabeth

The widow of William Oliver, she held an auction of his stock 16 Dec. 1689 in conjunction with Edward Millington (the auction catalogue was advertised in the London Gazette 2 Dec. 1689). Continuing the business of her husband, she paid overseers' rates on her shop from June 1689 until 1694. She held a second auction 10 Jul. 1693 (catalogue in the Bodleian Library). She was succeeded in the business by her son Samuel.

OLIVER, Frances

The widow of Samuel Oliver, she continued the family business in Cockey Lane, probably from 1703 to 1740. In 1704 she sold Joseph Brett's Sermon preached 8tb March 170314 printed by Francis Burges in Norwich, and Thomas Clayton's Unity of worship, printed by Freeman Collins in London. Between this date and 1740 she published a large number of works and regularly advertised in the Norwich newspapers, also selling patent medicines. She retired as a result of ill health, and her shop and stock were taken over by Jonathan Gleed (N. G. 29 Mar. 1740).

OLIVER, Francis

A ghost, brought about by a misspelling in an entry in the Term Catalogues, this name has been listed in several sources (including Plomer

OLIVER, Samuel

The son of William and Elizabeth, and the husband of Frances Oliver. He was born 22 Apr. 1671 (St Peter Mancroft parish register) and became a freeman of Norwich by patrimony 1 Mar. 1689/90. He may have been in partnership with his mother until 1694 as he is not recorded as having paid church rates until 1695. Samuel's name is however found on the imprint of Erasmus Warren's Divine rules of 1692, and other works after this date. From 1695 he continued all aspects of his father's former business at the sign of the "Bible" in Cockey Lane. From this address he published a combination paper printed by Francis Burges (B.L. Harleian MS. 5910.) and the following year (1702) a poem by William Waller on the death of King William III. Samuel Oliver was appointed Surveyor of the duties on Houses and Marriages in Norfolk (Calendar of Treasury Books) and according to the same source he died towards the end of 1704 (see entry for 22 Jan. 1704/5). However, Samuel Oliver's widow is listed as having paid churchwardens' rates in 1703.

OLIVER, William

A bookseller, "next door to the Castle and Lyon, over against the Guildhall" and later "the turning left hand into Cockey Lane" from 1662 until 1689. The son of Samuel Oliver, a clerk of Wells, Somerset, he was apprenticed to Joseph Cranford for eight years from 13 Dec. 1654 (Stationers' Registers). Cranford moved to Norwich around 1659 and Oliver appears to have remained in the city after Cranford's return to London about 1662 . Oliver therefore purchased his freedom of Norwich for £10 on 4 Sep. 1662, as Cranford had not been a freeman when his indentures were sealed (Foreign Receiver's accounts). At this time Oliver was living in St Gregory's parish, although his shop was in St Peter Mancroft parish (Assessment for Royal Ayde, N.R.O. 19b). William Oliver published a significant number of small works by local Royalist clergy between 1662 and 1686, including three titles by John Winter. In 1665 he was given the job of entertaining visiting preachers to the city on behalf of the authorities, along with William Nowell, and in 1669 he took over the complete 'ob (Mayor's Court Book 14 Oct. 1665 and 20 Oct. 1669). He appears to have moved his business at about this time as he became liable to pay St Peter Mancroft churchwardens from 1669170 and he is first listed at his new address on a military assessment of 1671 (N.R.O. 13a). He frequently supplied books for the use of the Mayor's Court between 1668 and 1683 (Chamberlain's accounts). William Oliver had three sons, Samuel who became a bookseller, Edward who became a Doctor of Divinity and eventually Prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral, and John who held several Norfolk benefices. He was granted £2 a year by the city authorities towards the upkeep of John as a sizar at St John's College from 1681 (Venn). William Oliver died at some time between 13 Apr. 1689 when he was left a legacy by the will of William Pinder, and Jun. 1689 when his widow is recorded as having paid overseers' rates to the parish. On 16 Dec. 1689 his widow, Elizabeth, held an auction of his stock, and afterwards continued to operate the business.

OLLYETT, Thomas

A bookseller and bookbinder in St Andrew's parish from around 1589 until 1616. He is first noticed on 14 Jul. 1589 when he appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions and paid £10 recognizance to appear and give evidence. He became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder and stationer, the apprentice of Thomas Gilbert, 9 Mar. 1593/4. In the same year his son, Edward, was baptised in St Andrew's parish (parish register). In 1598 he was a constable of his parish and also borrowed £5 from the Cambridge chest charity. From around 1599 he employed Jeremy Bromley, and from around 1611 a man named William James is listed as Ollyett's servant on musters and other military documents (N.R.O. 13a). He served on the Common Council for Wymer ward from 7 Apr. 1605 until April 1607, and is mentioned in the Chamberlain's Accounts for 1607 and 1614 as having supplied books to the city. In 1599 Ollyett purchased a property in Cutlers' Row which he sold again in 1612 (Court Roll 33 fol. 43 and Roll 34 fol. 33). In 1613 he bought two messuages in Cutlers' Row and Pottergate (one of the tenants being the bookbinder John Clifford) and the following year he sold a tenement in Racky Lane (Court Roll 34 fols. 31 and 53). His name ceases to appear on musters for the parish in 1615, and the name Christopher Ponder, his former apprentice, is found in its place (N.R.O. 13a).

PAETZ, Joannes

A Dutch refugee listed as a bookseller in 1568 on a census of aliens, having come to Norwich the previous year (a copy of the census is in Norwich Dean & Chapter archive).

PARSLEE, John

An apprentice of James Bowen from 7 Jul. 1789 (Feather).

PAYNE, John

A printer, the son of Benjamin Payne a barber, he became a freeman of Norwich 7 Dec. 1776. He was the brother of William Payne and was possibly the father of John Payne II.

PAYNE, John II

A bookseller and printer in the Market Place from around 1798 until 1807. His name is found on the imprint of H. Brand's Plays and poems printed by Richard Beatniffe. He became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 21 Sep. 1799, the apprentice of the firm of Yarington and Bacon, and about the same time he opened a shop at 53 Market Place (N. M. 28 Sep. 1799). Peck lists him at 22 Market Place (circa 1801). He is listed as a printer in Norwich polls until 1807.

PAYNE, William

A printer, the son of Benjamin Payne, a barber, he became a freeman of Norwich with his brother John Payne 7 Dec. 1776. By 1780 he had moved to Great Yarmouth where he printed Thomas Howe's Virtue and patriotism.

PEARSON, Robert

A bookseller in the Market Place from 1792 until 1795. He supplied books to the Norwich Public Library from 1791/2 (Fawcett) and took over Thomas Booth's bookshop in the Market Place (N. M. 17 Mar. 1792). He is listed on a Norwich poll for 1794 in St Peter Mancroft parish. He gave up his circulating library which was later auctioned (N. C. 8 Aug. 1795 and 5 Sep. 1795).

PINDER, William

A bookseller and bookbinder at the sign of "the crown"near the "Star" in the Market Place from 1665 until 1689. He buried a daughter in St Peter Mancroft churchyard 17 Apr. 1665 (parish register). The freedom of Norwich was awarded to him by order of the Mayor's Court 11 Jan. 167011 in exchange for taking a poor boy (named William Pinder) as an apprentice and for binding several books for the Court (Mayor's Court Book 26 Oct. 1670). He was also the father of William Pinder III who was officially bound apprentice to him in 1680. A printed advertisement for Pinder, dated 1684, is found pasted in the back of the Colman Library copy of Alexander Neville's Norfolk furies 1623. He was buried in St Peter Mancroft parish 18 Jul. 1689 (parish register) leaving money in his will to his friend William Oliver (N.C.C. Wills, Original Wills 14), but Oliver was already dead by this date. William Pinder may have been related to Jonathan Pinder the bookseller who died in Cambridge 1663 (Gray & Palmer).

PINDER, William II

A poor boy of St Paul's parish taken apprentice by William Pinder (Mayor's Court Book 26 Oct. 1670).

PINDER, William 111

The son of William Pinder, he was bound apprentice to his father as a bookbinder for seven years from 20 Sep. 1680 (Assembly Book-). He does not appear to have taken up his right of freedom of Norwich.

PONDER, Christopher

A bookseller and binder at the sign of "the Angel" in St Andrew's parish and St Peter Mancroft parish from 1615 until around 1624. He was the apprentice of Thomas Ollyett, and his name appears on musters for St Andrew's in 1615 at the same time as his master's name ceased to appear (N.R.O. 13a). He was still in this parish in 1616 but from 1618 until 1624 his name is found on these documents for St Peter Mancroft parish. In 1616 he published James Spottiswood's Execution of Nescbecb printed in Edinburgh by Andrew Hart. Ponder became a freeman as a stationer 16 Dec. 1616. Although nothing more is known of him after 1624, he may have been in business until 1630, for in that year Edmund Casson bought a messuage in St Peter's parish which was described as "late in the occupation of Christopher Ponder" (Court Roll 36. fol. 32).

POSTLE, Thomas

A Thomas Postle, paper maker, of St Mary's parish, Norwich, insured property in the city in April 1749 (Shorter).

RABAT, Anthonius

A Dutch bookseller listed on a census of aliens of 1568 (Norwich Dean & Chapter archive). He came to the city in 1567 with a wife and child. His name is mentioned in the London Dutch Church register in 1561 (Alnutt). Rabat's name is given by Berry & Poole as possibly a printer in Norwich in 1567, but no further explanation of the statement is given.

RAIKES, Robert

A printer in Norwich for a few weeks in 1718. He was bound apprentice to John Barber in London 1 Oct. 1705 and he became a freeman of the Stationers' Company 1 Dec. 1712. He was brought to Norwich by Samuel Hasbart in the spring of 1718 to print a newspaper in opposition to Henry Crossgrove (see entry for Hasbart). By 16 Jun. 1718 Raikes had moved to St Ives where he founded the St Ives Post Boy. He later became famous as the printer of the Gloucester journal (see Plomer II & N. G. April-June 1718).

REDWOOD, ' John

A bookseller and binder from 1726 until around 1744. He arrived from London and was living in Little Cockey Lane (N. G. 9 Jul. 1726) and moved to St Giles Broad Street near the Market Place (N.G. 13 Apr. 1734). However, his address is given as “against the three feathers near at Georges Tombland" in 1735 (Plomer II). He moved to the corner of White Lion Lane, near the Market Place (N. G. 2 Dec. 1738) but was still described as "of St Giles Broad Street" (N. G. 26 Jan. 1740). Redwood had not purchased his freedom, and was therefore going to be sued by the Corporation (Assembly Book 21 Jun. 1736), but he finally became a freeman as a bookseller 3 May 1739. He is last known when he subscribed to the Harleian Miscellany circa 1744.

REEVE, Little

A bookseller in Cockey Lane and Tombland from 1707 until around 171 1. She took over the shop in Cockey Lane "late Mr Rose's" (Norwich Postman 10 Apr. 1708). In 1709 she published an edition of John Harris' Divine physician, and moved her shop to Tombland, adjoining the lower gates going into the Close (N. G. 29 Sep. 1711). She is not known again after this date. (In a 1693/4 Poll Tax return in the N.R.O., the eldest daughter of George Rose was named "Little"; it therefore seems likely that Little Reeve was the widowed daughter of George Rose.)

REYNOLD, Henry

The son of Henry Reynold, a brewer of Diss, he was bound apprentice to Leonard Delyson for seven years from 1551 (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29).

RICHER, Nicholas

A bookseller and binder from 1779 until 1812. An apprentice of Edward Walesby, he took over his master's business at 39 London Lane (N.M. 20 Nov. 1779). He became a freeman by patrimony (the son of John Richer a draper) 26 Jul. 1783. His stock and trade were advertised as "to be disposed of" (N.M. 13 Aug. 1785) and he appears to have moved to 6 St Giles Broad Street by 1792 (Universal British Directory). His name is found on Norwich polls until 1812, listed as a bookseller in St Gregory's parish.

ROBBERDS, William Tooke

The apprentice of Christopher Berry, he became a freeman of Norwich 18 Jun. 1781. He opened a bookshop 1785, and started a circulating library 1787 (N.M. 7 May 1785 and 6jan. 1787). He is listed in Norwich polls until 1807. From 1790 until 1809 he was also a proprietor of the Swanton Morley paper mill (Stoker, Papermaking in Norfolk).

ROBINSON, James

A bookseller and binder near the Maid's Head from around 1794 until around 1796. Formerly with the firm of Yarington and Bacon, he moved to the above address, and possibly took over the shop of Martin Crockett (N.M. 12 Jul. 1794). H. Lubbock bought binding materials from Robinson's trustees (N.M. 17 Sep. 1796).

ROCHESTER, Robert

The partner of Christopher Berry III at 11 Dove Lanefroml795 (N.M. 13 Jun. 1795) until around 1805 (A catalogue of books... by Berry & Rochester, Norwich 1805).

ROSE, George

A bookseller in the Cockey Lane, St Peter Mancroft parish from 1671 until 1707. He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase 21 Sep. 1671 and paid churchwardens rates in the parish from 1677. He published Robert Conold's Sermon preached 31st January 167415 1675, and several other works in the succeeding years. Rose was a constable for his parish 168011 (Assembly Book) and also a churchwarden in 1686. He was employed to supply books to the Mayor's Court from the 1680s until his death and appears to have been their official stationer (see entries in the Mayor's Court Books and Chamberlain's Accounts for this period). George Rose appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions together with his wife Suzanne 14 Jan. 1683/4 and was ordered to keep the peace. He married a second wife, Mary, 14 Aug. 1693 (parish register). He again appeared before the Quarter Sessions 6 Apr. 1695 and lost an appeal against a ruling in the Mayor's Court that he was guilty of fathering an illegitimate child. As a result of his comments arising from this decision he was required to apologise to the members of the Mayor's Court (1 5 Jun. 1695). He was also examined by the justices along with Edward Giles 17 Mar. 1688/9 for selling a seditious pamphlet (Calendar of State Papers Domestic).

From 1692 George Rose's name is found on the imprint of the quasi-newspaper, Houghton's Collection for the improvement of husbandry and trade. and he later took advertisements in the Norwich Gazette (N. G. 14 Dec. 1706). Like many other provincial booksellers he also sold patent medicines, "Major Choke's Virtuous Necklaces" in the 1680s and "Stoughton's Elixir" in the 1700s (Alden). He also sold a wide variety of groceries (N.G. 3 May 1707) and held the third known book auction in Norwich on 2 Dec. 1700. He appears to have also been an agent in Norwich for the artist James Meheux (Gough, vol. 2 p. 11).

Rose died before 6 Sep. 1707 when he is described by the Norwich Gazette as "the late Mr Rose", but his advertisements continued to appear in that paper for a few more issues. His business was taken over by Little Reeve, who was probably his daughter (Norwich Postman 10 Apr. 1708). George Rose was the master of Thomas Goddard.

ROUTH, John

A printer from 1756 until 1768. The son of Simon Routh, a worsted weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 13 Nov. 1756. He appeared on the Norwich polls of 1761 and 1768 living in the parish of St John de Sepulchre, in the 1761 poll being described as a “typographer". Nothing is known with his imprint and so it is likely he was only a journeyman.

RYCK, Willem

A printer from Norwich circa 1626, he is described as being betrothed in Amsterdam 28 Nov. 1626 (Briels). It is extremely doubtful that he worked in Norwich in this capacity.

SCOTT, Robert

A bookseller and binder from around 1568 until 1571. He is known from a law suit brought by the bookseller Abraham Veale in the Court of Common Pleas in 1571 against him for the non-payment of debt (P.R.O. CP40/1297 m. 1668 Michaelmas 1571). He was very probably the same Robert Scott who obtained his freedom of Norwich as a grocer, by order of the Municipal Assembly, 24 Feb. 1560/1. This man lived in St Andrew's parish where he was a constable in 1561/2, and where he purchased property from a Thomas Garton in 1566 (Court Roll 26. fol. 57). Scott also borrowed money from the Cambridge Chest charity in 1568 and 1569. He died in 1572; his administration is in the Norwich Consistory Court Series. He may have been succeeded by his wife.

SELFE, Samuel

A bookbinder at the sign of the "Bible and Crown" Cockey Lane in St Andrew's parish. He became a freeman of Norwich by purchase, for £3, 3 May 1700. He published Humphrey Prideaux's Directions to churchwardens in 1704 and in the following year he and his wife Sarah christened a son, Henry (parish register). In the same year Selfe was paid three shillings by the churchwardens of St Peter Mancroft for binding "a book of wills".

Selfe's career finished in February 1710 when he was arrested in London for feloniously counterfeiting stamped paper (N.G. 25 Feb. 1710), counterfeit stamps having been found in his house (N.G.4Mar.1710).He was later convicted, but the sentence is not known (N.G.5Aug.1710).His business was taken over by Edmund Hollaway (N. G. 2 Sep. 1710).

SEMAN, John

A bookbinder circa 1540, he was paid sixteen pence for binding the Norwich 'Domesday Book' (Hudson & Tingey Catalogue p. 106).

SHALDER, John

The son of Absalom Shalder, a collarmaker, he became a freeman of Norwich as a stationer 6 Dec. 1800.

SHEFFIELD, Sherard

The son of William Sheffield of Stapleford, Leicestershire, he was apprenticed to William Onely for seven years from 17 Sep. 1696, but he never became a freeman of the London Stationers' Company. He moved to Norwich in 1706 to print the Norwich Postman newspaper for Thomas Goddard. He also printed John Hardy's The usefulness and advantages of peace and unity in 1707. In the same year Sheffield's name ceases to appear on the imprint of the newspaper and was replaced by that of William Chase.

SNOW, William

A printer, an apprentice of William Yarrington, he became a freeman of Norwich 3 May 1796. The following year his name is found on a Sheriff's poll as a printer living in the parish of St Mary Coslany.

SOLEMPNE, Anthony de

The first printer in Norwich, he was a refugee from the Duke of Alva, at Antwerp. He arrived in Norwich in 1567 with his wife and two sons (see a census of aliens in the city, 1568, preserved in the Norwich Dean and Chapter archive). He was possibly the master of Albert Christian. Solempne purchased the freedom of Norwich as a printer and vendor of Rhenish wine, 1 1 Dec. 1570 for 40s. (Assembly Book). At this time he was living in the parish of St Andrew (T. Brooke, Certayn versis. 1570) but by 1572 he had moved to premises at the sign of the "White Dove" in the parish of St John Maddermarket, where he is known until 1584 (Norfolk and Norwich Notes and Queries, lst series 1888 p. 34). His name also appears on the Lay Subsidy for this parish in 1581 and he was apparently one of the wealthiest men in the refugee community in Norwich (P.R.O. 152/403 m.7). In 1578 he was described as a deacon of the Dutch church (Mayor's Court Book 30 Aug. 1578). The name Antoyne Solence is known in London in 1544 (Worman, p. 63), and the name Antony de Solembe is recorded in the St Stephen's parish churchwardens' account in 1606/7: the latter reference at least probably refers to a son of the printer. Solempne's productions were mostly in Dutch and certainly include a psalm book and catechism, a confession of faith, and a perpetual calendar. Several other Dutch books without any imprint have been attributed to his press, and there is still a certain amount of confusion over what he may or may not have printed (Stoker, Anthony de Solempne). Solempne is also known to have printed a broadside in French and several items in English, including an execution broadside, a prayer for the abatement of bad weather, byelaws for the Norwich Corporation, and proclamations for the parish of St Andrew. He appears to have given up printing around 1572.

SOTHERTON, Richard

A grocer who in 1554 was ordered not to “utter or sell seditious books" (Blomefield vol. 3, p. 269).

SPRAT, John

A bookseller near the Guildhall from 1652 until 1656. An apprentice of William Franklin, he became a freeman of Norwich 20 Jul. 1652. The following year he published John Carter's The tombstone and a rare sight. He appeared before the Norwich Quarter Sessions 2 Oct. 1654, when he was bound over with £10 sureties to keep the peace. Later John Sprat was forbidden by the Mayor's Court from selling certain specifies works (Mayor's Court Book 17 Feb. 1654/5). A year later he appeared and made complaint to the above court, along with William Franklin about the state and cost of the postal and carriage service to London, from the city (Mayor's Court Book 26 Mar. 1656).

STEVENSON, William

The son of the Reverend Seth Ellis Stevenson of East Retford Nottinghamshire, he was born 13 Mar. 1749/50 (Chambers p. 1092). He was a miniature painter and a student at the Royal Academy. He came to live in Norwich in 1783 and later married Catherine Matchett. He was a partner with John Crouse in the proprietorship of the Norfolk Chronicle from 1785 until 1794, when Stevenson's step-son also became a partner. Crouse died in 1796 and Stevenson's son, Seth William, joined the partnership in 1805 (Stedman p. 140). Stevenson became a freeman as a stationer 24 Feb. 1786, by purchase, and advertised as a bookseller in the Market Place at the "Medicinal Warehouse" (N. C. 24 Mar. 1787) and at the "Norfolk Arms" (N.C. 26 Jan. 17931. He became a sheriff in 1799 and died 1821.

STEWARDSON, Chadley

A bookbinder, the son of Nathaniel Stewardson, a worsted weaver, he became a freeman of Norwich 9 Nov. 1794.

SUDBURY, Daniel

A printer and bookseller in Kings Lynn and Swaffham, he was the apprentice of Richard Beatniffe in Norwich. He became a freeman of the city in 1785, and then opened a shop in Kings Lynn High Street (N.M. 15 Sep. 1787). He advertised for an apprentice (N. M. 26 Oct. 1793) and was listed in the N.M. 16 Aug. 1800.

TAYLOR, James

A bookseller, the son of Matthew Taylor, he became a freeman of Norwich 6 Sep. 1710. He is also listed in the Norwich poll of 1710 as a resident of the St Peter Mancroft parish.

THURGAR, Thomas William

A printer, bookseller, and bookbinder from 1793 until 1802. The son of John Thurgar, a staymaker, he became a freeman of Norwich as a bookseller 1 Jun. 1793. In the 1799 Norwich poll he was listed as a bookbinder in London, but in the 1801 Peck's Norwt'cb Directory he was listed at 1 Bethel Street, St Peter Mancroft parish, Norwich. He is last known at this address on the 1802 Norwich poll.

TOMPSON, Robert

The son-in-law and apprentice of Edward Giles, he became a freeman of Norwich as a stationer 7 Jan. 1703/4. In the 171 0 Norwich poll he is listed as a bookseller in St Andrew's parish. However, Edward Giles' will indicates that Tompson had been working for him in 1711; he was also Giles' executor and principal legatee (Norwich Archdeaconry Court file 61). Shortly after his master's death Tompson appears to have sold the business (possibly to William Chase).

VAN HILLE, Cornelius

A refugee bookseller, he arrived in Norwich 1567 and is listed on a census of aliens in 1568 (see under Christian).

WAITE, Robert Newman

The son of George Waite, a tailor, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 14 Jan. 1795. On the 1796 Norwich poll he is listed as living in the suburbs of the city.

WALESBY, Edward

A bookseller and bookbinder from 1751 until 1779. The son of Edward Walesby, a barber, he became a freeman of Norwich as a binder 20 Apr. 1751. He advertised in the N.M. 12 Mar. 1757 and moved to London Lane (N.M. 8 Sep. 1764). He paid Window Tax in St Andrew's parish until 1775, and in 1779 he died and was succeeded by his apprentice, Nicholas Richer (N.M. 20 Nov. 1779). Martin Crocket and Sophia Hart were also his apprentices, and he was the brother of John Walesby.

WALESBY, John

The son of Edward Walesby, a barber, he became a freeman of Norwich as a bookbinder 27 Nov. 1756. He was the brother of Edward Walesby.

WARDALE, Dornale Benjamin

An apprentice of Richard Beatniffe, he became a freeman of Norwich as a bookseller 23 Aug. 1794.

WARDLAW, Christina

Probably the wife of William Wardlaw, she took over the management of the business in 1784 and moved to Dove Lane (N. M. 7 Aug. 1784) where she had the largest circulating library in the city. She was in hard circumstances along with her husband (N. M. 1 1 Apr. 1795) but was still at 16 Dove Lane in 1801 (Peck).

WARDLAW, William

A booksellers Dove Lane and the Market Place from 1749 until 1797. He advertised his business in Dove Lane (N. G. 16 Sep. 1749) and by 1757 had moved to Gentleman's Walk in the Market Place (N.M. 27 Aug. 1757). He advertised for an apprentice (N.M. 23 Aug. 1755) and issued a catalogue (N. M. 3 Sep. 1768). In 1757 his name is found on the imprint of a Norfolk map (Chubb). In 1783 Wardlaw had a circulating library at 42 Market Place (Chase). His wife Christina appears to have taken over the business in 1784 when she moved to 16 Dove Lane (N. M. 7 Aug. 1784). However William was still alive in 1795 when he advertised that he was in hard circumstances and with an infirm wife, having traded for nearly fifty years in Norwich (N. M. 1 1 Apr. 1795). He died in 1797 (Cambridge Chronicle andjou mal 26 Aug. 1797).

WELLHAM, Benjamin

An apprentice of Thomas james, he was bound for seven years from 1623 (Noi@@lk Record Society vol. 29).

WESTON, Henry

An apprentice of Edmund Casson, he was bound apprentice for seven years from 1620 (Norfolk Record Society vol. 29).

WHITE, Ann

Probably the widow of Stephen White, she printed S. Webster's This farewell address 1795.

WHITE, Stephen

The son of Stephen White, a cooper, he became a freeman of Norwich as a printer 27 Jan. 1759. He had earlier been an apprentice of Henry Crossgrove (Trewin & King, p. 19). He advertised as a stationer, printer and engraver with a rolling press, at the sign of the "Bible and Crown", Magdalen Street (N.M. 25 Jun. 1763). He advertised for an apprentice (N. M. 1 Jun. 1765) which was answered by Luke Hansard, who has left a very full description of his master and his business (Trewin & King). White advertised for a second apprentice (probably Harbord Fiddy) (N.M. 28 Oct. 1769). He moved to St Andrew's Street Bridge (N.M. 3 Apr. 1773) and was possibly succeeded for a short period by his wife Arm around 1795.

WILCHON, Thomas

A bookbinder in St Stephen's parish who died in 1512 (N.C.C. Wills 192 johnson).

WILSON, John

A bookbinder in St Peter Mancroft parish from around 1687 until 1694. He was probably the same man that paid churchwardens' rates from 1687 (although there was a shoemaker of this name listed in the parish in 1686). He was imprisoned for debts to various people in Norwich, Bury St Edmunds, and London around 1690 but was released two years later as a result of an act of parliament for the release of poor debtors (Norwich Quarter Sessions Minutes). He was listed on a Poll Tax return for his parish 1693/4 together with his wife (N.R.O.).

WOLLHAM, Robert

A bookseller of St Stepheh' parish, he died in 1716. His will (N.C.C. 85 Bokenham) shows that he had a wife Winifred, but gives few other details. He was probably a journeyman.

YARRINGTON, William

The son-in-law of Richard Bacon, he was a partner with Bacon and William Chase III from 1785 in the proprietorship of the Norwich Mercury (Stedman, p. 71). In 1788 Chase dropped out of the partnership and the firm of Yarrington and Bacon continued until 1794 and were the masters of John Payne II, James Robinson and William Snow. William Yarrington was a freeman of Norwich as a scrivener from 14 Apr. 1781.

ABBREVIATIONS

Alden - J. Alden, 'Pills and publishing', The Library 1952.

Alnutt - W. H. Alnutt, 'Some account of English provincial presses', Bibliographica 1896. Amherst & Le Strange - W. Amherst & H. Le Strange, History of Union Lodge Norwich No. 52, Norwich, 1898.

Arber - E. Arber, A transcript of the registers of the Company of Stationers of London, Birmingham, 1875-94.

B.L. - British Library.

Berry - C. Berry, A concise history and directory of the city of Norwich, Norwich, 1810.

Berry & Poole - W. T. Berry & H. E. Poole, Annals of printing, 1966.

Blomefield - F. Blomefield, An essay towards a topographical history of Norfolk 2nd ed. 1805-10.

Briels - J. G. Briels, Zuidnederlandse boekdrukkers en boekverkopers in de Republick ... 15701630, Nieuwkoop, 1974.

Cambridge Chest - Account book of the Cambridge Chest Charity, St Peter Hungate Museum, Norwich.

Chambers - J. Chambers, A general history of the county of Norfolk, Norwich, 1829.

Chase - William Chase & Co., The Norwich directory, Norwich, 1783.

Chubb - T. Chubb, A descriptive list of printed maps of Norfolk 1574-1916, Norwich, 1928.

D.N.B. - Dictionary of National Biography.

Dibdin - T. F. Dibdin, Bibliomania 3rd ed. 1876.

Dunton ~ J. Dunton, Life and errors 1818.

Farrell - F. Farrell, Yarmouth printing and printers, Norwich, 1910.

Fawcett ~ T. Fawcett, 'Eighteenth-century Norfolk booksellers: a survey and register' Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 1972.

Feather - J. Feather, 'Country book trade apprentices 1710-1760', Publishing History 1979.

Gent ~ T. Gent, The life of Mr Tbomas Gent printer of York, 1832.

Gough - R. Gough, British topography, 1780.

Gray & Palmer - G. Gray & W. M. Palmer, Abstracts from the wills and testamentary documents of printers, binders and stationers Cambridge 1504-1699, 1915,

Hudson & Tingey - W. Hudson & J. C. Tingey, The records of the city ofnorwick, Norwich 1906-10.

Hudson & Tingey Catalogue ~ W. Hudson & J. C. Tingey, Revised catalogue of the city of Norwich, Norwich, 1898.

Huguenot Society Denizations - Huguenot Society Denizations and naturalisations ofaliens, 1893.

Kemp's nine daies wonder ~ W. Kemp, Kemp's nine daies wonder, Camden Society, 1840.

Le Strange - H. Le Strange, History of Freemasonry in Norfolk, Norwich, 1896.

McKenzie - D. F. McKenzie, Stationers' Company apprentices 1605-1640, Charlottesville, 1961.

McKenzie Cambridge University Press ~ D. F. McKenzie, The Cambridge University Press 1696-1712, Cambridge, 1966.

McKerrow - R. B. McKerrow, A dictionary of printers and booksellers, 1910.

Miller - W. Miller, 'Printers and stationers in the parish of St Giles Cripplegate 1561-1640',

Studies in Bibliography 1966.

N. C. - Norfolk Chronicle.

N.C.C. - Diorwich Consistory Court.

N.G.    Norwich Gazette.

N.M.    Norwich Mercury.

N.R.O. - Norfolk Record Office.

Nichols - J. Nichols, Literary anecdotes of the eighteenth century, 1812-1815.

Norfolk Record Society vol. 1 -'Norwich Subscriptions to a voluntary gift 1662'Calendar of

Frere Mss etc., Norwich, 1931.

Norfolk Record Society vol. 29 - An index of indentures of Norwich apprentices enrolled with the Norwich Assembly Henry VII-George 11, Norwich, 1959.

P.R.O. - Public Record Office.

Peck - T. Peck, The Norwich directory, Norwich, 1801.

Pendred ~ J. Pendred, The earliest directory of the book trade 1955.

Plomer, Some notices - H. R. Plomer, 'Some notices of men connected with the English book trade in the plea rolls of Henry VII', The Library, 1910.

Plorner I I - H. R. Plorner, A dictionary of the printers and booksellers ... 1668-1725, 1922. Plomer III - H. R. Plomer (and others), A dictionary oftbeprintersandbooksellers... 1726-1775, 1932.

Ramsden - C. Ramsden, Bookbinders of the United Kingdom 1780-1840, 1954.

Shorter - A. Shorter, Paper mills and paper makers in England 1495-1900, Hilversum, 1957. Stationers' Registers - Registers of apprentices and freemen of the Stationers' Company at Stationers' Hall.

Stedman - R. Stedman, Vox populi; the Norfolk newspaper press 1760-1900, Library Association thesis, 1971.

Stoker, Anthony de Solempne - D. Stoker, 'Anthony de Solempne', The Library 1981.

Stoker, Edward Cave - D. Stoker,'Edward Cave and the Norwich Post', U.E.A. Bulletin, 1975.

Stoker, Papermaking in Norfolk - D. Stoker,'TheearlyhistoryofpapermakinginNorfolk', Norfolk Archaeology, 1976.

Tawney & Power - R. Tawney & E. Power, Tudor economic documents, 1924.

Todd - W. H. Todd, A directory of printers ... 1800-1850, 1972.

Trewin & King - J. C. Trewin & E. M. King, Printer to the House, 1952.

Universal British Directory - Universal British Directory 1790-8.

Venn - J. & J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge, 1922-7.

Verwey - H. de la Fontaine Verwey,'Hendrik van Brederode en de drukkerijen van Vianen', Het Boek 1949.

Wiles - R. M. Wiles, Freshest advices. Columbus, 1965.

Williams - J. B. Williams,'Henry Crossgrove, Jacobite, journalist and printer', The Library 1914.

Worrnan - E. Worman, Alien members of the book trade in the Tudor period, 1906.